The Oral cavity is lined with mucous membrane continuous
with the skin. The mucuous membrane is an epithelial tissue that lines and
protects organs, secretes mucous to keep passageways of digestive system moist
and lubricated, and absorbs nutrition.
Purposes of Oral Hygiene:
Oral Hygiene helps maintain the
healthy state of the mouth , teeth, gums and lips.
Brushing cleanses the teeth of food
articles, plaque and bacteria.
Brushing massages the gums.
Brushing relieves discomfort
resulting from unpleasant odours and tastes.
Flossing helps remove plaque and
tartar from between teeth to reduce the gum inflammation and infection.
Oral hygiene gives a sense of well
Proper Oral hygiene stimulated
To improve taste
Proper Oral Hygiene
Good oral hygiene involves
cleanliness, comfort and the moisturizing the mouth structures. Proper care
prevents oral disease and tooth destruction.
Brushing, flossing and irrigation
are necessary for proprer cleansing.
To prevent tooth decay, reduces the
intake of carbohydrates, especially sweet snacks between meals.
Brushing of the teeth atleast four
times a day is a basic to an effective oral hygiene(after meals and at bed
Tooth brushes should be replaced
every three months
After brushing,thorough rinsing is
important to remove dislodged food particles
Risk factors for Oral problems
Patients who are paralyzed or seriously ill.
Patients undergoing radiation
Patients receiving chemotheraphy
Patients having oral surgery, trauma
Patients with immunosuppression drug
eg HIV patients
Common Oral problems
The two major types of oral problems
are dental caries (cavities) and periodontal disease ( Pyorrhea)
Dental caries is the most common
oral problem of younger people. The development of the cavities involve the
destruction of tooth enamel through decalcification. Decalcification is a
result of an accumulation of mucin, carbohydrates and lactic acid bacilli in
the saliva normally found in the mouth, which forms a coating on the teeth
Plaque is transparent and adheres to the teeth near the base
of the crown at the gum margins. The plaque prevents normal acid dilution and
neutralization, preventing the dissolution of bacteria in the oral cavity. The
acid eventually destroys the tooth enamel and in severe cases, the pulp, or
inner sponge tissue of the teeth.
Periodontal disease is the disease of the tissue around the
tooth. It is an inflammation of the periodontal membrane. It is the most common
problem of people over 35 years of age.
The calculus deposit on teeth at the gum line. The gingivae
become swollen and tender. Then the inflammation spreads, pockets develop
between gums and gingivae. The alveolar bone is destroyed and the teeth loosen.
3) Halitosis (Bad breath) is a
common problem of the oral cavity.
Causes : (i) poor oral hygiene
inspection of the oral cavity
Cheilosis is the disorder involves
cracking of the lips
especially at the ankle of the mouth. Causes (i) Riboflavin
(ii) Mouth breathing
Stomatitis is an inflammative condition
of the mouth.
causes (i) contact with irritants such as tobacco
infection by bacteria, viruses or
Use of Chemotherapeutic drugs
Glossitis is an inflammation of the
tongue resulting from an infectious disease or injury such as burn or bite.
Gingivitis is a inflammation of the
gums usually resulting from poor oral hygiene.
Oral malignancies: lumps are ulcer
appears in or around the mouth. The most common site is at the base of the
causes (i) pipe smoking
Cotton swab or clean linen pieces in
Forceps ( artery and dissecting
Gallicups 2 nos. ( one for Glycering
borax another for salt solution)
Feeding cup with salt solution
Kidney trays 2
Place all the articles at
conveniently on the bedside table.
Explain the procedure to the patient
Put the rubber sheet (mackintosh)
with towel and kidney tray under the chin
Have the patient rinsed his mouth
with salt solution form the feeding cup
Turn the patient' s head to one side
Take the artery forceps, wrap a
piece of linen around the tip of the forceps
Dip it inside the saline water and
clean the teeth with up and down movements.
Pay special attention to inside the
mouth, gums, inside the cheeks, tongue and the roof of the mouth
Change linen pieces as often as
Discard used cotton in the other
Allow the patient to gargle as much
the swap stick in glycerin borax, swab gums, root and sides of the mouth.
After care of Equipments:
Clean kidney trays and feeding cups
with soap and water.
Boil forceps, and gallicups after
Place all articles in their places
after cleaning and boiling.
Care of Dentures
If the patient has dentures, care should taken to keep the
dentures clean. If the patient is unable to do so, the nurse has to remove the
dentures by grasping it with gauze pieces, place them in a tumbler or cup
containing water. Dentures are washed carefully busing brush, toothpaste and
cool water. Water, which is too hot, may injure the composition of dentures. If
the patient is to do by himself, he may be assisted. Remove dentures of
patients who are unconscious, mentally ill and who have vomiting or cough spasm