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MILK AND MILK PRODUCTS
The story of milk goes back to the beginning of civilization itself. Cattle were domesticated even in prehistoric times and milk was one of the most essential of all foods. Milk is one of the most complete single foods available in nature for health and promotion of growth .
Milk is the normal secretion of mammary gland of mammals. Its purpose in nature is to provide good nourishment for the young of the particular species producing it. Man has learnt the art of using milk and milk products as a food for his well being and has increased the milk producing function of the animals best adapted as a source of milk for him.
The cow is the principle source of milk for human consumption in many part of the world; Other animals as source of milk for human beings are the buffalo, goat, sheep, camel and mare. In India, more milk is obtained from the buffalo than the cow. Some amount of goat milk is also consumed.
NUTRITIVE VALUE OF MILK
Milk is a complex fluid containing protein, fat, carbohydrate, vitamins and minrals. The main protein in milk is casein and it constitutes 3.0 - 3.5 percent of milk.
The fat content of milk varies from 3.5 percent in cow' s milk to about 8.0 percent in buffalo' s milk. Fat is present in the form of fine globules varying in diameter from 1 to 10 mm (micrometers).Milk also contains phospholipids and cholesterol.
Lactose is the sugar present in milk. The important
minerals in milk are calcium, phosphorus, sodium and potassium. Milk is an
excellent source of riboflavin and a good source of Vitamin A. However, milk is
a poor source of iron and ascorbic acid. The small amount of iron present is
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