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Chapter: 11th Nursing : Chapter 1 : Nursing - Origin and its Development

Nursing as a profession - A New Perspective

Historically, only medicine, law and Engineering were accepted as profession.

Nursing as a profession - A New Perspective.

Historically, only medicine, law and Engineering were accepted as profession.


Criteria of a profession

Genevieve and Roy Bixler first wrote about the status of nursing as a profession in 1945. These criteria include the following.

1.        The services provided are vital to humanity and the welfare of the society: Nursing is the service that is essential to the wellbeing of the people and to the society.

2.        There is a special body of knowledge that is continually enlarged through research: In the past nursing was based on principles borrowed from the physical and social sciences and other disciplines. Today there is unique body of knowledge to nursing.

3.        The services involve intellectual activities: Nursing process is a cognitive activity that requires both critical and creative thinking and serves as the basis of providing nursing care.

4.        Practitioners are educated in institution of higher learning: There are basic nursing program, baccalaureate program, masters and Doctoral program in nursing

5.        Practitioners are relatively independent and control their own policies and activities (Autonomy): Nursing actions are independent, most nurses are employed in hospitals where authority resides in one’s position.

6.        Practitioners are motivated by service (altruism) and considered their work an important component of their lives: Nurses are dedicated to the ideal services to others, which is known as altruism.

7.        There is a code of Ethics to guide the decisions and conduct of Practitioners: The International council of Nurses (ICN) has established Code of Nursing Ethics through which standards of practice are established, promoted and refined.

8.        There is an organization (Association) that encourage and supports high standards of practice: Nursing has a number of professional associations that were formed to promote the improvement of the profession. Foremost among there is the TNAI (The Trained Nurses Association of India).


Perception of Nursing

A global perception of Nursing will enable nurses to rise higher levels in their knowledge, skills and improved performance both in India and around the globe. The factors which influence the trends in Nursing are.

1.        Changes in society – done by five factors:

a.        Intensive efforts of government to meet the health needs of people.

b.       Gradual improved literacy level of the people.

c.         Advanced scientific technology

d.       The changing role of women

e.         The continuing growth of population.

2.        Patients “Bill of Rights”: The nurses are also accountable for patients care and have legal responsibilities for the patient.

3.        Development in other discipline: Development in other discipline other than medicine also influence trends in nursing profession.

4.        Leadership within the profession: It also influences the trends in Nursing.

5.        Overseas Scope: Shortage of Nurses in other countries, higher salary paid in abroad is the main causes for the working of Indian Nurses in abroad.

6.        Working Hours of Nurses: More Convenient hours of duty, better accommodations and higher salaries

7.        Trends in other countries: Developed countries influence the trends in the nursing profession in India.


Expanded and Extended Roles of Nurses:

The following roles and positions perceived as in globe are given below.


Nurse educator 

Works in schools of Nursing teach clients about the self care and home care.

Clinical Nurse specialist

Managing specific diseases, functions as clinicians, educators, managers etc. 

Nurse practitioners

Health care to clients in out-patient or community settings.

Certified nurse mid wife

Mid wife to provide independent care for women during normal pregnancy, labour and delivery.

Nurse anaesthetist

Provides surgical anaesthesia

Nurse administrators

They manage clients with health care agencies in a middle or upper level management position. 

Nurse Researches

With Doctorate degree investigate nursing problem to improve care and to define and expand the scope of  nursing practice.

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11th Nursing : Chapter 1 : Nursing - Origin and its Development : Nursing as a profession - A New Perspective |

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