Understanding of patient:
Correct psychological approach results in good rapport with the patient. A very important aspect of understanding the patient is to recognise and accept the fact of individual differences among patients. Some patients are co-operative, friendly and react in a cordial manner, while there are others who remain aloof and in some extreme cases antogonised.
Some patients are selfish and demanding asking for nurse' s attention and presence all the time. Some patients understand quickly, respond to nurse' s instructions readily, while there are others, who do not seem to follow nurse' s instructions.
No two patients are alike. They are different from one another intellectually, emotionally, socially, culturally, socio- economically and hereditary. These factors contribute to their differences and it is these differences, which make nursing interesting.
A nurse, to whom the nursing care of infant is assigned, should realize that the infant needs security, love, affection and understanding. This has to be provided by the nurse through patting and tendering the baby. A good nurse can minimize the danger by meeting his or her needs in an adequate manner.
The following suggestions are useful.
See that the child' s surroundings are cheerful and pleasant.
The child needs to have visitors especially the members of his or her family. Meet their needs graciously.
Establish a cordial relationship with the young patients by talking to him at his own level by knowing his pet name and his likes and dislikes.
Provide him toys that can be taken to bed. Play in his natural usage.
Play spirit can be used in getting the plans of treatment executed and seeking the child' s co-operation. It is no use forcing him into compliance. The use of force will increase his resistance.
Provide love and affection that he is not able to get from his parents, who are not present.
Exercise patience. Do not allow oneself to be upset by whims and fancies.
It is desirable that the child acts independently and does not remain in dependent status too long. Encourage him to do things for himself.
See that the child does not remain worried, tensed, moody or upset on account of being subject to new, sudden and harsh changes.
The nurse needs to guard herself against becoming personally involved with a child patient. This may happen when a child has developed very short attachment to a particular nurse resulting in his rejection of all other nurses, who attend to him. Let the nurse recognise this situation and limit the attention she gives him.
Parents of sick children need to be helped. They may not behave normally because of their acute anxiety. A good nurse should use poise, sympathy, tolerance and tactfulness when dealing with their questions of anxiety.
The adolescent patients can be helped better if his growth patterns and needs are properly understood. Adolescents are used to the boundless energy that they find difficult to slow down and take it easy. The nurse plays a role of a counselor.
The adolescent should be treated as a grown up and matured persons. He feels secured if he is treated as equal in age and experience, if difficulties are discussed with him and his opinions are respected
The adult patient may lose his usual emotional control may be bothered by the fear of the unknown and of possible death. He may find to withdraw or he may make unreasonable demands. The ward restrictions may furiate him and this may lead to non-cooperative behaviours.
The principle of good nursing care of an adult is that he should not be allowed to regret. He should be encouraged to participate in recreational activities individually and with the group.
The aged patients present their own problems. Age brings about many physical, intellectual and emotional changes in the individual, which cause the general insecurity.
Depression and feelings of loneliness often set in. The nurse should be equipped with the knowledge of old age. She should pay close attention at first to his physical hygiene and should see that the maximum physiological health is maintained through diet, rest and exercise.
The understanding of patients will be facilitated if the nurse possesses knowledge of the common effects of illness and hospitalization on their behaviour reactions.