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National Filaria Control Programme:
A National Filaria Control Programme was launched in 1955. To begin with, 22 filaria survey units and 13 control units were set up 'in different parts of the country to get a correct picture of the extent of filariasis in the country. As a result of these surveys, it is now estimated that about 412 million people are living in filarial areas.
The main activities under the N.F.C.P are :
Anti-mosquito and anti-larval measures in endemic area
establishment of filaria clinics for the detection and treatment of positive microfilaria cases and
provision of underground drainage in hyperendemic cities and towns.
Since June 1978, the operational component of the NFCP has been merged with the urban malaria scheme, but research and activities continue to be with the Director, National Institute of Communicable Diseases, Delhi.
At present 206 filaria control units are functioning in the country. 199 filaria clinics are functioning in the rural areas.
Besides, 12 Headquarters Bureaux and 3 Regional filaria training and research centres are also functioning in the country.
During the Eighth Five Year Plan, it was envisaged to distribute anti-filarial drugs through primary health care delivery system in the rural areas of endemic states.
As a consequence of continued research, it is now known that the Annual Single dose mass drug Therapy with antifilarial drug helps in reducing transmission to a very significant level.
Accordingly the Directorate of NMEP developed a Pilot Project for introduction of this strategy in 13 endemic districts in 7 states namely Andhra Pradesh,. Bihar, Kerala, Orissa, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal for 5 years to cover 40 million population.
Initially it was introduced in south arcot vallali district in Tamilnadu in 1996. In Kerala, Orissa UP and West Bengal, the strategy has been introduced in 1997
The strategy is being well received by community. The operational modalities include door-to- door drug delivery in Tamilnadu and Kerala through booth system in otherstates. The day mass drug therapy is given is called Filaria Day.
The national Tuberculosis Control Programme is a centrally sponsored programme. The activities of N.T.C.P. comprise:
Early detection and domiciliary treatment of T.B. cases.
BCG vaccination of infants and children.
Isolation facilities, especially for those who require surgery or emergency treatment.
Training and Demonstration.
A District Tuberculosis Control Programme was evolved in 1962 as a new approach to the community control of Tuberculosis. Early detection of T.B. cases by all primary health centres in the district and other hospitals and agencies, domiciliary treatment of all sputum positive cases and B.C.G. vaccination of all those below 20 years of age are the main concern of the District T.B. Control Programme. National T.B. Control Programme has been accorded high priority by the government with the inclusion of NTCP in the 20-point programme, there is expansion of essential activities under the programme.
Short-term chemotherapy has been introduced in 292 districts and is being introduced in more districts in a phased manner. Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme has been introduced in the country as a Pilot Project since 1993 covering 2.35 million population.
The second phase was expanded to 17 more places covering about 13.85 million population. At present it is in third phase covering about 450 million population.
The objective of this strategy is to achieve at least 85 percent cure rate of infectious cases through DOTS to detect at least 75 per cent estimated cases through quality sputum microscopy; and involvement of NGOs in information, education and communication activities.
DOTS is given by peripheral health staff such as MPWs or through voluntary workers such as teachers, anganwadi workers, dais, ex-patients, social workers etc. They are known as DOT agent.
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