To meet the food requirements of evergrowing population of India , the available cultivation land (about 143 Mha) should be intensively cropped. This can be achieved by multiple cropping which increases agricultural production per unit are of cultivated land in a year with a available resource in a given environment. There are two form of multiple cropping.
Table: Salient details of some crops of north India (Plains)
Crop : Sowing time, Harvesting time, Seed requirement (kg/ha), Average yield under normal conditions (q/ha), Average water depth mm)
Rice June â€'July October â€'November 40â€'50 20â€'40 1500â€'2000
Maize June â€'July Jan â€'FebSeptember â€'October 40â€'50 15 â€'30 150 â€'200
Sorghum(Jawar) June â€'July October â€'November 20 â€'30 15 â€'30 150 â€'200
Spiked Millet (Bajra) July October â€'November 5 â€'10 15 â€'30 150 â€'200
Groundnut June â€'July November â€' December 100 â€'120 20â€'25 200â€'250
Cotton April â€'May November â€'January 15â€'202 â€'5 (with seeds)500â€'700
Wheat November â€' December April â€'May 100â€'120 20â€'40 300â€'400
Barley October â€'November March â€'April 80 â€'100 20â€'40 250â€'300
Gram October â€'November March â€'Apri l30â€'40 15â€'30 250â€'300
Sugarcane October â€'November, Februray â€'March October â€'April 3000â€'4000 8000 â€'10000 1500â€'2000
Potatoes September â€'December November â€'February 1500â€'2500 25000â€'30000 400 500
(i) Intercropping, and (ii) sequential cropping. When two or more crops are growing simultaneously on the same field, it is termed intercropping. Crop intensification is in both time and space dimensions. There is, obviously, strong intercrop competition in thish form multiple cropping. On the other hand, when two or more crops are grown in sequence on it same field in a year, it is termed sequential cropping. The succeeding crop is planted after it preceding crop has been harvested. Crop intensification is only in time dimension and there no intercrop competition in sequential cropping.
State â€'wise irrigated area under selected major crops (2)
(1) Other major crops include groundnut, cotton, sugarcane, tobacco, rapeseed and mustard.
(2) â€'Below 500 hectares.
Choice of a suitable cropping pattern for an area is dependent mainly on the characteristics and climatic conditions of the area. From the considerations of management canal supplies, it is important to arrive at a cropping pattern which could be sustainable by the available water and also maximize economic benefits for the people of that area. For this purpose the systems approach is very useful. Parameters, such as self sufficiency for the area in stapes food and fodder, use of a diversified pattern to reduce risks of failure, problems related storage and marketing particularly for perishable crops, reasonably uniform demand of water all through the year, and the preferences of the local farmers are always incorporated in the analysis.
Hybrid is an offspring of a parents belonging to different characteristic groups of the same genet group. Plant and animal breeders have developed special techniques for producing hybrids artificially in laboratories, zoos, and farms.
Hybrids generally tend to be sterile. Even if they can produce, the first generation off spring may resemble their parents but next generation may not. The second generation usually shows different combination of the characteristics of the original crossbred parents.
Growing of a crop with â€'hybrid seeds is called hybrid cropping. The hybrid seeds may unite the desirable traits of both parents. For example, a gardener may cross breed a ornamental large flower with a sweet â€'smelling variety to produce a hybrid variety of large aromatic flowers.
The hybrid seeds have what is called hybrid vigour i.e., they generally tend to be large faster â€'growing and healthier than their parent. This fact has been exploited commercially the cultivation of corn (maize), Potatoes, cotton, and several varieties of flowers. However, the hybrid seeds are very costly and, therefore, cannot be adopted on a mass scale in the counter. Hybrid seeds, however, appear more promising for glasshouse cultivation of plants.