MODIFICATION OF DIET TO SUIT THE NEEDS OF OLD AGE
The various physical, physiological and psychological changes during oldage necessitate the following modifications in the diet.
1. The problems of dentition or loss of teeth create the need to include foods with soft texture and that are easily chewable.
2. Foods should be easily digestible as there is a decrease in production of digestive enzymes.
3. Fat should be restricted to prevent obesity and susceptibility to cardiovascular diseases. Foods rich in saturated fat should be avoided.
4. Energy rich foods like sweets, fried foods and starchy foods need to be avoided.
5. Foods rich in calcium like milk and milk products should be given to compensate bone loss and reduce osteoporosis.
6. Fresh fruits, vegetables and green leafy vegetables should be included liberally which supply vitamins, minerals and fibre and are rich in antioxidants. Fruits and vegetables may be given as fresh juices, purees, soups and salads.
7. Coffee, tea and carbonated beverages should be restricted as they may result in insomnia (lack of sleep) due to over stimulation.
8. Small frequent meals may be given instead of three large meals which will aid in complete digestion.
9. Plenty of fluids need to be included to prevent constipation and dehydration.
10. Salt intake should be reduced.
Good nutrition during old age is of immense significance and care should be taken to see that the diets are nutritionally adequate, well balanced and suitable for consumption.
First of October is celebrated as world elders day.
Recipes for the elderly
With changing socio economic environment sometimes the elderly people are forced to live on their own and cook their own food. Hence they need some simple but nutritious recipes to maintain good health.
The recipes should
1. be nutritious
2. be easy to cook
3. involve minimum time for cooking or no cooking
4. be ready to eat
A few easy to cook and ready to eat recipes have been formulated by National Institute of Nutrition, Hyderabad which are as follows.
Easy to cook
1. Dalia (made from Broken wheat
2. Green Gram dhal)
3. Ragi Ambli
4. Rava Upma
6. Curd Salad
7. Suji Kheer
9. Methi Paratha
10. Pohe (Rice flakes upma)
Ready to eat
1. Coconut laddu
2. Groundnut Chikki
3. Black gram dhal laddu
4. Groundnut biscuits
The preparation for a couple of recipes are given below
Dalia Ingredients Quantity
Broken Wheat 100 g
Green gram dhal 100 g
Cumin seeds 5 g
Grated Carrot 100 g
Black Pepper Powder 2 g
Oil 15 ml
Salt to taste
Water 450 ml
Heat oil in pressure Cooker. Add cumin seeds and fry till it turns brown. Add broken wheat and fry till golden brown. Add rest of the ingredients and pressure cook for two minutes.
Total weight of cooked dalia in 750g measuring seven katories (1 Katorie - 150 ml).
The Nutritive value of the recipe
Calories - 900 k.cal
Protein - 42 g
Fat - 19g
Calcium - 390 mg
Iron - 17 mg
Pressed rice 100 g
Ground nuts 50 g
Sugar 120 g
Roast pressed rice till crisp. Roast ground nuts till brown. Remove husk and powder coarsely. Melt sugar in a heavy vessel. Put off the flame and add pressed rice and ground nuts. Mix well and spread on a greased wooden board. Cut into pieces with a greased knife before it gets cold.
Total weight of cooked cheera 325 g
Number of pieces 25
Calories 111 k.cal, Protein 19.3 g, Fat 21.6 g, Calcium 65 mg, Iron 21.4 mg.