Introduction of Steering system
Steering is the collection of components, linkages, etc. which
allow a vessel (ship,boat) or vehicle (car, motorcycle, bicycle) to follow the
desired course. An exception is the case of rail transport by which rail tracks
combined together with railroad switches (and also known as 'points' in British
English) provide the steering function.
The most conventional steering arrangement is to turn the
front wheels using a hand– operated steering wheel which is
positioned in front of the driver, via the steering column, which may contain
universal joints (which may also be part of the collapsible steering column
design), to allow it to deviate somewhat from a straight line. Other
arrangements are sometimes found on different types of vehicles, for example, a
tiller or rear–wheel steering. Tracked vehicles such as
bulldozers andtanks usually employ differential steering — that is,
the tracks are made to move at different speeds or even in opposite directions,
using clutches and brakes, to bring about a change of course or direction.
Ackermann steering geometry
Caster angle θ indicates kingpinpivot line and
gray area indicates vehicle's tire with the wheel
moving from right to left. A positive caster angle aids in directional
stability, as the wheel tends to trail, but a large angle makes steering more
Curves described by the rear wheels of a conventional
automobile. While the vehicle moves with a constant speed its inner and outer
rear wheels do not.