Interpretation of selected topo sheet
The OSM Sheet No G44Q12 63K/12 (Figure 11.2) covers major part of Mirzapur District and partly Varanasi District of Uttar Pradesh. It is based on the survey of 1970-71 and was published in 1978. It carries the scale of 1: 50,000 and covers area about 440 km² extending from 25º 0’ latitude to 25º 15’ latitude and 82º30’ longitude to 82º 45’ longitude.
It has two distinct physiographic units: 1. The Ganga Plain and 2. Vindhyan Plateau. The Ganga Plain extends on both sides of the meandering course of the Ganga. In the south it conterminates with the Vindhyan Plateau and is crisscrossed by the Chatar Nadi, Khajuri Nala and Ujhala Nala and their tributaries. It is a level plain with an average elevation of about 100 m above the mean sea level. The BM 84 m lies in eastern part of Mirzapur Town. The northern bank of the Ganga is comparatively lower than its southern counterpart by about 10 m. The eastern loop of the Ganga is wider, nearly 1.5km. or more in width and is marked by wide sandy shoals.
The Vindhyan Plateau covers the southern part of Mirzapur District. It covers nearly 50% of the total area of the sheet. It is essentially a dissected plateau with an average elevation of 160m above the mean sea level. The meeting point of the Ganga Plain and the Vindhyan Plateau is marked by 120m contour line. It has an undulating slope and is depicted with residual and flat-topped bulls like Deophulva followed by Murli (203 m), Rajghat (174m), Shakhar Pao (167 m). There are two ridges running parallel to each other and are separated by low saddles.
The master stream of the area is the Ganga which has a meandering course and is fed by other tributaries and nalas, the main ones being the Chatar Nadi, the Khajuri Nala and Ojhala Nala. They are mostly seasonal in character and rain fed. The streams of the Vindhyan Plateau are also seasonal but have formed notches on its surface. They have formed some water-falls like the Vindhyan Fall and the Tanda Fall. The direction of the platue streams is by and large towards north where they ultimately join the Ganga.
The northern plain is mostly devoid of vegetation as the land has been cleared for purposes of agriculture. Only small patches of vegetation are found along the Chatar and the Harrai Nadia. Of course there are orchards and other planatations near the settlements. In the Vindhyan Plateau there are two main Reserved Forests, the Danti Reserve Forests and the Barkachha Reserved Forests. They are basically mixed scrub forests covering the hill slopes and tops.
Means of Irrigation: Wells and tanks are the main means of irrigation is this area. Recently tube wells and canals have also received attention in the northern Ganga Plain.
The Ganga Plain is well settled, excepting the sandy and mashy tracts along the Gana, particularly in the north-east sector and on both sides of the N.R. line between Khajuri and Chatar Nalas and opposite Vindhyachal. These tracts are annually visited by the floods of the driver. The density of village settlements is well marked along the metalled roads.
The Vindhyan upland is sparsely populated with a few large nucleated settlements where there is cultivated land and water supply sources like tanks exist.
The most important town of the area is certainly Mirzapur located on the southern loop of the Ganga and has crescent shaped urban structure. Next to Mirzapur stands the holy town of Vindhyachal characterised by temples, the most important being the vindhyavasini Temple. It extends between the N.R. main line and the Ganga. North of the Gnaga lay the market towns of Kachhwa, Chilh and Khamaria where bi-Weekly markets are held
It is served by two railways, viz. (1) N.R. Main line (broad gauge electrified) running from Mughalsarai and passing through the main stations of Pahara, Jhingura, Mirzapur and Vindhyachal and
N.E. Line (broad gauge) from Mirzapur Ghat (R.S) to Madhosingh (Varanasi – Allahabad). A loop-line also exists from Pahara to a quary about 2kms away.
The area is well connected by roads. The Allahabad-Mughal sarai metalled road runs across the region south of the N.R. Main line and passes through Mirzapur. The National Highway No. 7 (Great Deccan Road) runs from Mirzapur to Lohaghat (16km.) on its onward journey to Kanyakumari (2300 k.m) Another metalled road joins Mirzapur and southern parts of the district via Churk, Robertsganj and Pipri.Besides there are other roads like Jaunpur-Mirzapur Road, Chilh (Mirzapurghat)-Gopiganj Road and Mirzapur-Bhatauli Road. There are some unmetalled roads linking Mirzapur – Chunar and Mirzapur-Mharajganj. The Ganga Plain is, on the whole better served by roads as compared to its upland counterpart.
Answer the following questions based on the given toposheet/ downloaded toposheet from Survey of India website -
1. What is the general settlement pattern of the map? Name it and draw the symbols in the settlement.
2. What is the contour interval of the map given?
3. Name any two modes of transport and communication.
4. Draw any 10 conventional symbols in the map.
5. Identify the landforms features and interpret them.
6. Identify the latitude and longitude of the toposheet.
7. Name any two types of vegetation found in the map.
8. Describe the drainage features.
9. What do the white patches of land signify?
10. What kind of economic activity is carried out in this area?