INTEGERATED DATA ANALYSIS
GIS model is the integrated data model which is more closely integrated with the database management system than in the hybrid system. The integrated data model approach is also described as the spatial data base management system approach, with the GIS serving as the query processor sitting on top of the database itself. The integrated data model has a number of implications in terms of the special characteristics of spatial data. From the data base viewpoint, it is possible to store both the coordinates and the topological information required to characterise digital cartographic elements using a design based on Codd's Normal Forms. (x, y) coordinate pairs for individual vertices along line segments are stored as different rows in a data base table. To achieve satisfactory retrieval performance it has been found necessary to store coordinate strings in long or 'bulk data' columns in tables. Handling of large spatial databases is the need to convert 2-D coordinate information into 1-D spatial keys that can be stored as data base table columns. These can then be indexed in the normal way and used for fast retrieval of map elements contained within or overlapping a specified geographical search area.
There are two ways of storing coordinate information as relational tables. The first records individual (x, y) coordinate pairs and polygon terminator and vertices as individual atomic elements or a row in a database. It is very difficult to search any element because each element must be recomposed from its atomic format to grate whole polygons or groups of polygons. The integrated GIS with which it can be understood how a single database can be configured to certain separate files for entities and attributes.GIS purpose are based on entities, attributes, and the relationship between entities and attributes with respect to the locations, temporal changes and both location and time. In the following sections, an attempt is made to provide a preliminary study for creating object based data models on the basis of entity-attribute relationships, location based representations of spatio-temporal data, and time based representations of spatio-temporal data and a combined approach of representing spatio-temporal data.