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Chapter: Business Science : Industrial Relations and Labour Welfare : Welfare of Special Categories of Labour

Important Short Questions and Answers: Welfare of Special Categories of Labour

Business Science - Industrial Relations and Labour Welfare - Welfare of Special Categories of Labour - Important Short Questions and Answers: Welfare of Special Categories of Labour



1.   Difference between Organized Labour and Unorganized Labour?

2. What do you mean by Contract Labour?


Ø  The contract labour is labour which is not carried on the payroll and is not directly paid. It is usually divided into two categories.


Ø  Those employed on job contracts; and Those employed on labour contracts


Ø The large establishments offer job contracts for such operations as the loading and unloading of the metals by the mining industry or the construction of roads or buildings by Public Works Department.


3.What is Child Labour?


Children have to be taken care and must be protected from being exploited by the society. Children of any age, whether, male or female should be not only protected but also safeguarded and developed to grow in a healthy atmosphere.


4.Describe some of the Statutory Provisions on Child Labour?


The child shall enjoy special protection and shall be given opportunities and facilities, by law and other means, to enable him to develop, physically, mentally, spiritually and socially in a healthy and normal manner and in conditions of freedom and dignity. In the enactment of laws for this purpose, the best interest of the child shall be the Paramount Consideration.


5. What is Female Labour?


Participation of women in economic activity is common in all countries. But in developing countries, the incomes of women labour by and large are low. Moreover, if women have to work, she needs more protection than man in her working environment in developing countries and in traditional occupations.


6.   List out the statutory provisions for women welfare


*                    Maternity Provision 1919


*                    Night Work 1919


*                    Underground work 1935


*                    Equal Remuneration 1951 and


*                    Discrimination (Employment and Occupation) 1958.


7.What is Construction Labour?


Construction industry employs around three million workers and the nature of work is considered hazardous. Large number of unskilled and semiskilled labour both male and female is employed on various form of building operation and road constructions.


8. Describe Handicapped and Disabled Workmen? Write down its categories?


A handicapped person is one who is having some shortcoming or infirmity which detracts a person from being a normal human being.


Handicapped may be divided into different categories viz.



*Physically handicapped, *Mentally handicapped, *Socially handicapped, and *Aged persons.


9.Write down the disablement benefit?


A person who sustains disablement for not less than 3 days, in entitled to periodic payment (at the rate of 40% more than the standard benefit rate which of `.14 or more depending upon his wages).


A person who sustains permanent disablement whether total or partial is entitled to periodical payment at such percentage of benefit payable in the cage of disablement as of proportionate to the percentage of loss of earning capacity.


10.Define Social Security? What is mean by Social Security?




According to Friedlander define as, ―The programme of protection provided by society against the contingencies of modern life, sickness, unemployment, old age dependency, industrial accidents and invalidism against which the individual cannot be exploited to protect himself and his family by his own ability for foresight‖.


Meaning of Social Security:


Social Security means the security provided by the society to the needy citizens on the principles of human dignity and social justice. Social Security Programmes are now increasingly being accepted as useful and necessary instrumented for the protection and stability of the labour force.


11.Write down some important social security measures were introduced by the Government?


       Workers Compensation Act, 1923


       Employees State Insurance Act, 1948


       Maternity Benefits Act – By State and Central Gover nment


       Coal Mines Provident Fund and Bonus Act, 1948


       Employees Provident Fund Act, 1952


       Family Pension Schemes, 1971


       Payment of Gratuity Act, 1952


       Deposit Linked Insurance Scheme


       Social Security Certificate Scheme, 1982


12.Define Social Assistance? What is mean by Social Assistance?




According to I.L.O define as, ―A service or scheme which provides benefits to persons of small means as right in amounts sufficient to meet minimum standards of need and financed from taxation‖.

Meaning of Social Assistance


Social Assistance schemes are funded from the consolidated fund of the state rather than from individual contributions, with statutory scales of benefit adjusted according to a person‘s means.


13.Define Social Insurance? Write down the principle elements of social insurance?




―Giving in return for contribution, benefits upon subsistence level as if right and without means tests so that an individual may build freely upon it. Thus social insurance implies that it is compulsory and that men stand together with their follows‖.


The Principle elements of Social Insurance:


Ø  Participation is compulsory with few exceptions.


Ø  Contributions are accumulated in special funds out of which benefits are paid.


Ø  Surplus funds, not needed to pay current benefits are invested to earn further income.


Ø  A person‘s right to benefit is secured by his contribution record without any list of need or means.





14.What do you mean by BPO & KPO Employees?


Communication and information technology industry is an important enabler in enhancing productivity. The structure and functions of IT industries are largely different than the conventional organizations which demand a different rule of the game to manage effectively.


15.Write a note on 3B’s.

Ø   Buying talents.


Ø   Borrowing talents and


Ø   Building talents.


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