Participation of women in economic activity is common in all countries. But in developing countries, the incomes of women labour by and large are low. Moreover, if women have to work, she needs more protection than man in her working environment in developing countries and in traditional occupations.
RESTRICTIONS ON THE EMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN
(a) Maximum daily work is 9 hours: No exemption from the provisions of Section 54 (which lays down that the maximum daily hours of work shall be nine hours) can be granted in respect of any women.
(b) prohibition of night work: No women shall be required or¬ allowed to work in any factory except between the hours of 6 a.m. and 7 p.m. The State Government may by notification in the official Gazette vary the limits for any factory or group or class or descrip-tion of factories. But such variation must not authorise the employ¬ -ment of women between the hours 10 p.m. and 5 a.m..
(c) Exception: There is an exceptional case. The State Government may make rules providing for the exemption from the afore~aid restrictions (wholly or partially or conditionally) of women working in fish-curing or fish-canning factories. In factories, mentioned above, the employment of women beyond the hours specified is necessary to prevent damage to or deterioration in any raw material. But such rules shall remain in force for not more than three years at a time.
Other restrictions: There are other restrictions on the employ¬ ment of women workers :
1. Work on or near machinery in motion. No woman or young person shall be allowed to clean, lubricate or adjust any part of the machinery while the prime mover or transmission machinery is in motion or to work between moving parts, or between fixed and moving parts of any machinery which is in motion.-Sec. 22(2}.
2. Cotton openers. No woman or child shall be employed in any part of a factory for pressing cotton in which a cotton opener is at work. If the feed-end of a cotton opener is in a room separated from the delivery-end by a partition extending to the roof or to such height as the Inspector may in a particular case specify in writing , women and children may be employed on the side of the partition where the feed-end is situated.-Sec. 27
3. Excessive weights. The State Government may make rules prescribing the maximum weights .which may be lifted, carried. or moved by adult men, adult women, adolescents and children employed in factories or in any class or description of factories or in carrying on any specified process.-Sec. 34.
4. Creches. In every factory wherein more than thirty women workers are ordinarily employed there shall be provided and main¬ tained a suitable room or rooms for the use of children under the age of six years of such women.-Sec. 48.
5. Dangerous operations. The State Government is empowered to make special rules for the purpose of controlling and regulating factories which carry on operations exposing women, young persons and other workers to a serious risk of bodily injury, poisoning or disease.-Sec. 87 (b).