1. Define quality. or how can quality be quantified
Quality is defined as the degree to which a set of inherent characteristics fulfills
requirements .Degree means that quality that can be used with adjectives such as poor, good and excellent. Inherent is defined as existing in something especially as a permanent characteristic. Characteristic can be quantitative or qualitative. Requirements is a need or expectation that is stated, generally implied by the organization, its customers, and other interested parties. Quality fulfills or exceeds our expectations. It is quantified as
Q = P/E
Q – Quality
P – Performance
E – Expectations.
It is also defined as the degree of excellence a product or service provides.
According to Deming “It is the predictable degree of uniformity, at low cost and suited to the market”. According to Joseph Juran “Quality is fitness for use”. According to Philip B. Crosby “Quality is conformance to requirements”.
• What are the Dimensions of Quality?
3.Give the Basic Concepts of TQM?
• A committed and involved management to provide long-term top-to-bottom
• An unwavering focuses on the customer, both internally and externally.
• Effective involvement and utilization of the entire work force.
• Continuous improvement of the business and production process.
• Treating suppliers as partners.
• Establish performance measures for the processes.
4. What are the elements of TQM?
I.TQM principles and practices 1.Leadership
2.Customer focus 3.Employee involvement
5.Continuous Process Improvement
II.TQM tools and techniques
1.Seven tools of quality
2.New management tools
3. Six sigma
5. What are four absolutes of quality observed by Crosby.
1. Conformance to requirements not goodness
2. Quality is preventive not appraisal.
3. Zero defects not that’s close enough.
4. Measurement of quality is the price of non-conformance, not indexes.
6. What are the steps in Quality planning?
According to Juran the steps included in Quality planning are:
1. Establish quality goals.
2. Identify customers.
3. Discover customer needs.
4. Develop product features.
5. Develop process features.
6. Establish process controls, transfer to operations.
7. What are the dimensions of Quality?
The dimensions of Quality are:
1. Performance – Primary product characteristics such as the brightness of the picture.
2. Features – Secondary characteristics, added features, such as remote control.
3. Conformance – Meeting specifications or industry standards.
4. Reliability – Consistency of performance over time, average time for the unit to fail.
5. Durability – Useful life includes repair.
6. Service – Resolution of problems and complaints, ease of repair.
7. Response – Human to human interface, such as the courtesy of the dealer.
8. Aesthetics – Sensory characteristics such as exterior finish.
9. Reputation – Past performance and other intangibles, such as being ranked first.
8.What are the four elements of ‘system of profound knowledge’described by deming.
1. Appreciation for a system.
2. Knowledge of statistical theory
3. Theory of knowledge
4. Knowledge of psychology.
9. Give the taguchi’s definition of quality.
Quality as loss imparted to society from the time the product is shipped.
10. Define TQM?
TQM is a management philosophy which seeks to integrate all organizational functions (marketing, finance, design, engineering, and production, customer service …) to focus on meeting customer needs and organizational objectives. It views organizations as a collection of processes. It maintains that organizations must strive to continuously improve these processes by incorporating the knowledge and experiences of workers.
The Simple Objective of TQM “Do the right things, right
the first time, every time.” Some Basic Tenets of TQM
1. The customer determines quality.
2. Improving quality requires the establishment of effective quality metrics. We must speak with data not just opinions.
3. People working within systems create quality.
4. Quality is a moving target. It requires a commitment toward sustained continuous improvement.
5. Prevention not detection is the key to producing high quality. We must design quality into products and reduce variability.
6. Top Management must provide leadership and support for all quality initiatives.
11. What are the Points in Deming’s Philosophy?
1. Create constancy of purpose for improvement of products and service.
2. Adopt a new philosophy: we are in a new economic age.
3. Cease dependence upon inspection as a way to achieve quality.
4. End the practice of awarding business based on price tag.
5. Constantly improve the process of planning, production, and service- this system includes people.
6. Institute training on the job.
7. Institute improved supervision (leadership)
8. Drive out fear.
9. Break down barriers between departments.
10. Eliminate slogans/targets asking for increased productivity without providing methods
11. Eliminate numerical quotas.
12. Remove barriers that stand between workers and their pride of workmanship.
13. Institute programs for education and retraining.
14. Put all emphasis in the company to work to accomplish the transformation.
12. What are the three stages of taguchis product developments?
1. System design
2. Parameter design
3. Tolerance design
13. What are the pillars of TQM?
1. Problem solving
2. Interpersonel skills
3. Team work
4. Quality improvement process.
14. Why it is difficult to change organizational culture.
Influencing external and internal environments make it difficult to change organizational culture.
15. What are the barriers to TQM ?
The main barriers to TQM are as follows :
i. Lack of understanding of the TQM concept
ii. Absence of visible support from senior & Top management
iii. Fear of change
iv.Poor internal communication
v. Heavy work loads
vi.Nature of organization
vii.Lack of adequate education & training
viii. Limited resources
ix. Irregularity of the meetings
x. Delay in implementation of the recommendation
xi. Difficulties in evaluation