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Chapter: Mechanical - Fluid Mechanics And Machinery - Pumps

Important Answers and Solved Problems: Fluid Mechanics - Pumps

Mechanical - Fluid Mechanics And Machinery - Pumps

 

PUMPS

 

 

1.  What is meant by Pump?

A pump is device which converts mechanical energy into hydraulic energy.

 

2. Define a centrifugal pump

 

If the mechanical energy is converted into pressure energy by means of centrifugal force cutting on the fluid, the hydraulic machine is called centrifugal pump.

 

3. Define suction head (hs).

 

Suction head is the vertical height of the centre lines of the centrifugal pump above the water surface in the tank or pump from which water is to be lifted. This height is also called suction lift and is denoted by hs.

 

4. Define delivery head (hd).

 

The vertical distance between the center line of the pump and the water surface in the tank to which water is delivered is known as delivery head. This is denoted by hd.

 

5. Define static head (Hs).

 

The sum of suction head and delivery head is known as static head. This is represented by 'Hs' and is written as,

Hs = hs+ hd

 

6.   Mention main components of Centrifugal pump.

i)  Impeller ii) Casing

 

iii) Suction pipe,strainer & Foot valve   iv) Delivery pipe & Delivery valve

 

7. What is meant by Priming?

 

The delivery valve is closed and the suction pipe, casing and portion of the delivery pipe upto delivery valve are completely filled with the liquid so that no air pocket is left. This is called as priming.

 

8. Define Manometric head.

It is the head against which a centrifugal pump work.

 

9. Describe multistage pump with

a. impellers in parallel   b. impellers in series. In multi stage centrifugal pump,

 

a. when the impellers are connected in series ( or on the same shaft) high head can be developed.

 

b. When the impellers are in parallel (or pumps) large quantity of liquid can be discharged.

 

10.. Define specific speed of a centrifugal pump (Ns).

 

The specific speed of a centrifugal pump is defined as the speed of a geometrically circular pump which would deliver one cubic meter of liquid per second against a head of one meter. It is denoted by 'Ns'.

 

11. What do you understand by characteristic curves of the pump?

 

Characteristic curves of centrifugal pumps are defined those curves which are plotted from the results of a number of tests on the centrifugal pump.

 

12. Why are centrifugal pumps used sometimes in series and sometimes in parallel?

 

The centrifugal pumps used sometimes in series because for high heads and in parallel for high discharge

 

13.Define Mechanical efficiency.

I

 

t is defined as the ratio of the power actually delivered by the impeller to the power supplied to the shaft.

 

14. Define overall efficiency.

It is the ratio of power output of the pump to the power input to the pump.

 

15. Define speed ratio, flow ratio.

 

Speed ratio: It is the ratio of peripheral speed at outlet to the theoretical velocity of jet corresponding to manometric head.

 

Flow ratio: It is the ratio of the velocity of flow at exit to the theoretical velocity of jet corresponding to manometric head.

 

16..         Mention main components of Reciprocating pump.

#    Piton or Plunger

#    Suction and delivery pipe

#    Crank and Connecting rod

 

17.. Define Slip of reciprocating pump. When the negative slip does occur?

 

The difference between the theoretical discharge and actual discharge is called slip of the pump.

 

But in sometimes actual discharge may be higher then theoretical discharge, in such a case coefficient of discharge is greater then unity and the slip will be negative called as negative slip.

 

18. What is indicator diagram?

 

Indicator diagram is nothing but a graph plotted between the pressure head in the cylinder and the distance traveled by the piston from inner dead center for one complete revolution of the crank

 

19. What is meant by Cavitations?

 

It is defined phenomenon of formation of vapor bubbles of a flowing liquid in a region where the pressure of the liquid falls below its vapor pressure and the sudden collapsing of theses vapor bubbles in a region of high pressure.

 

20. What are rotary pumps?

 

Rotary pumps resemble like a centrifugal pumps in appearance. But the working method differs. Uniform discharge and positive displacement can be obtained by using these rotary pumps, It has the combined advantages of both centrifugal and reciprocating pumps.

 

 


 




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