GLOSSARY OF TERMS IN NUTRISION
Ascites : accumulation
of fluid in the abdominal cavity.
Basal energy expenditure : The amount of energy used in 24 hours
by a person who is lying quietly, 12 hour after the last meal, in a comfortable
temperature and environment.
Carnitine : an
amino acid which forms an ester with fatty acyl COA to facilitate the transfer of long-chain fatty acids across
mitochondrial membranes for oxidation.
Cirrhosis : inflammation
and scarring of liver tissues resulting in
impaired liver function.
Dietary fiber : plant fibers that include cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, gums and pectin.
Essential fatty acids (EFA) : fatty acids which the body needs,
but cannot be synthesized. The two main EFAs are linoleic acid and
Fibrosis : formation
of fibrous tissue in repair process.
Growth spurt : The period of growth when the growth rate is fastest.
Haemorrhoids : Commonly known as piles.
Haematuria : condition
in which urine contains blood.
Infant mortality rate : number of infant deaths in the first years of life per 1000 live births.
Insulin : hormone
secreted by beta cells of the islet of langerhans.
Invisible fats : Fat present as an integral component of plant and animal foods such as in cereals and legumes.
Ketogenesis : Synthesis
Ketonemia : Presence
of ketones in the blood.
Ketonuria : excretion
of ketones when fatty acids are incompletely oxidized in the body.
Ketosis : condition
resulting from incomplete oxidation of fatty acids, and the consequent accumulation of ketones like acetone,
beta - hydroxybutyric acid and aceto acetic acid.
Kilocalorie : the
amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 kg of water by 1oC.
Lactational amenorrhea : cessation of monthly menstrual period during the period of lactation.
Menarche : The
onset of menses in females
Necrosis : death
of a cell or portion of a tissue
Nephritis : inflammation
of the nephrons
Nephrosis : degeneration
of the nephrons.
Nocturia : Urination
Nutrient balance : The balance between intake and output for a particular nutrient.
Oedema : abnormal
accumulation of fluid in the intercellular tissue spaces or body cavities.
Oliguria : scanty
secretion of urine.
Osmolarity : Is
a measure of the osmotically active particles per litre of the solution. It is expressed as mOsm/l.
Osmotically : Is
a measure of the osmatically active particles per kilogram of the solvent in which the particles are dispersed. It
is expressed as mOsm/kg.
Osteopenia : A metabolic
bone disease common in preterm infants, also
called rickets of prematurity.
Plaque : any patch
area : atherosclerotic plaque is a deposit of lipid material in the blood vessel.
Proteinuria : excretion
of protein in the urine
Purging : The
use of self - induced vomiting, laxatives or diuretics to prevent weight gain.
Rooting reflex : If the baby's cheek is touched the baby will turn towards that side.
Transamination : the reversible transfer of an amino group from an amino acid to a keto acid, forming a new keto acid and a new
amino acid without the appearance of ammonia.
Visible fats: Fats
and oils that can be used directly or in cooking.