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Chapter: 11th 12th std standard Class Nursing Health Care Hospital Hygiene Higher secondary school College Notes

Glossary Of Terms In Nutrision

Ascites, Basal energy expenditure, Basal energy expenditure, Carnitine, Cirrhosis, Dietary fiber, Essential fatty acids (EFA), Fibrosis, Growth spurt, Haemorrhoids, Haematuria, Infant mortality rate, Insulin, Invisible fats, Ketogenesis, Ketonemia, Ketonuria, Ketosis, Kilocalorie, Lactational amenorrhea, Menarche, Necrosis, Nephritis, Nephrosis, Nocturia, Nutrient balance, Oedema, Oliguria, Osmolarity, Osmotically, Osteopenia, Plaque, Prophylaxis, Proteinuria, Purging, Rooting reflex, Transamination, Visible fats



Ascites : accumulation of fluid in the abdominal cavity.


Basal energy expenditure : The amount of energy used in 24 hours by a person who is lying quietly, 12 hour after the last meal, in a comfortable temperature and environment.


Carnitine : an amino acid which forms an ester with fatty acyl COA to facilitate the transfer of long-chain fatty acids across mitochondrial membranes for oxidation.


Cirrhosis : inflammation and scarring of liver tissues resulting in impaired liver function.


Dietary fiber : plant fibers that include cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, gums and pectin.


Essential fatty acids (EFA) : fatty acids which the body needs, but cannot be synthesized. The two main EFAs are linoleic acid and linolenic acids.


Fibrosis : formation of fibrous tissue in repair process.


Growth spurt : The period of growth when the growth rate is fastest.


Haemorrhoids : Commonly known as piles.


Haematuria : condition in which urine contains blood.


Infant mortality rate : number of infant deaths in the first years of life per 1000 live births.


Insulin : hormone secreted by beta cells of the islet of langerhans.


Invisible fats : Fat present as an integral component of plant and animal foods such as in cereals and legumes.

Ketogenesis : Synthesis of ketones.


Ketonemia : Presence of ketones in the blood.


Ketonuria : excretion of ketones when fatty acids are incompletely oxidized in the body.


Ketosis : condition resulting from incomplete oxidation of fatty acids, and the consequent accumulation of ketones like acetone, beta - hydroxybutyric acid and aceto acetic acid.


Kilocalorie : the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 kg of water by 1oC.


Lactational amenorrhea : cessation of monthly menstrual period during the period of lactation.

Menarche : The onset of menses in females

Necrosis : death of a cell or portion of a tissue

Nephritis : inflammation of the nephrons

Nephrosis : degeneration of the nephrons.

Nocturia : Urination at night.


Nutrient balance : The balance between intake and output for a particular nutrient.


Oedema : abnormal accumulation of fluid in the intercellular tissue spaces or body cavities.

Oliguria : scanty secretion of urine.


Osmolarity : Is a measure of the osmotically active particles per litre of the solution. It is expressed as mOsm/l.


Osmotically : Is a measure of the osmatically active particles per kilogram of the solvent in which the particles are dispersed. It is expressed as mOsm/kg.

Osteopenia : A metabolic bone disease common in preterm infants, also called rickets of prematurity.


Plaque : any patch area : atherosclerotic plaque is a deposit of lipid material in the blood vessel.


Prophylaxis: prevention of disease


Proteinuria : excretion of protein in the urine


Purging : The use of self - induced vomiting, laxatives or diuretics to prevent weight gain.


Rooting reflex : If the baby's cheek is touched the baby will turn towards that side.


Transamination : the reversible transfer of an amino group from an amino acid to a keto acid, forming a new keto acid and a new amino acid without the appearance of ammonia.


Visible fats: Fats and oils that can be used directly or in cooking.

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11th 12th std standard Class Nursing Health Care Hospital Hygiene Higher secondary school College Notes : Glossary Of Terms In Nutrision |

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