The testes have a dual function: the formation of spermatozoa from the germinal cells of the seminiferous tubules and the se-cretion of the male sex hormone testosterone, which induces and preserves the male sex characteristics.
The prostate gland lies just below the neck of the bladder. It surrounds the urethra and is traversed by the ejaculatory duct, a continuation of the vas deferens. This gland produces a secretion that is chemically and physiologically suitable to the needs of the spermatozoa in their passage from the testes.
Cowper’s gland lies below the prostate within the posterior as-pect of the urethra. This gland empties its secretions into the ure-thra during ejaculation, providing lubrication. The penis has a dual function: it is the organ for copulation and for urination. Anatomically, it consists of the glans penis, body, and root. The glans penis is the soft, rounded portion at the distal end of the penis. The urethra, the tube that carries urine, opens at the tip of the glans. The glans is naturally covered or protected by elongated penile skin—the foreskin—which may be retracted to expose the glans. However, many men have had the foreskin removed (cir-cumcision) as newborns. The body of the penis is composed of erectile tissues containing numerous blood vessels that become distended, leading to an erection during sexual excitement. The urethra, which passes through the penis, extends from the blad-der through the prostate to the distal end of the penis.
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