Production involves pre-preparation and preparation.
Quantity food production depends upon correct weights and measures. In order to obtain a standard product with a standard yield, it is essential that food should be weighed and measured accurately. A set of scales, measuring jugs, stand-ard measuring cups and spoons can be used.
Learning how to measure ingredi-ents is essential for any preparation. Being well versed with all measurements eases any preparation.
All foods have to be prepared before cooking and serving Eg: washing, peeling, cutting, grinding. Each process requires good skills.
The three basic tools of measurement includes:
Measuring spoons – Includes tea spoon, table spoon
Dry measuring cups – They are usually made up of glass, stainless steel, alumi-num or plastic and have even rim.
Liquid measuring cups – These cups have pour spout and handle which helps in add-ing the liquid ingredients like milk, water and oil.
· Do not measure over mixing bowl
· A pinch is smaller than a dash (1/16 tsp)
· Measuring by weights rather than by volume is much more accurate.
2. Tools for Stirring, Dipping and Turn-ing: It includes spoons, ladles, turners, spatulas and tongs.
3. Tools for Blending: Mixer is an important labour saving electrically operated piece of equipment for multi-purpose use. For example, mixing pas-try, cakes, mashing potatoes, beating egg, mincing or chopping meat and vegetable, beating butter, whipping cream and dough–wet dry. Blenders are used to grate, chop or puree. The food cutter may be purchased with added feature for slicing, grinding and cubing.
4. Food Slicers and Peelers: When por-tion control is stressed the slicer will determine the amount to be sliced. Peelers use to peel potatoes and other root vegetables with minimum waste by action on a revolving abrasive disc.
5. Miscellaneous Tools: Strainers, cut-ting board, rolling pins and knives are included. Knives like paring, utility, carving, slicing, butcher knives and cleavers are used.
The equipment needed for preparation and cooking large quantities of food are given below:
Many types are available in different met-als and size. They may be heated by gas, electricity or steam from the main supply. The advantage of boilers is that they do not allow the food to burn.
There are three types of boilers namely
a. Pressure boiler – Boils rice
b. Automatic boiler – Boils food at inter-vals
c. Bulk boiler – Large quantities of food boiled at a given time
They are sealed compartments where steam is allowed to come in direct contact with the food for cooking. Steaming ovens that work from a main steam supply needs little maintenance.
This type of equip-ment is usually fitted with a gauge which registers steam pressure, also an overflow valve which gives a warning whistle if the pressure reaches danger point. These should be periodically checked to ensure that they are working correctly. A constant supply of water should be maintained in the steam generating tank. Steamer trays inside the steamer should be cleaned and rinsed. They are ideal for vegetable cook-ery because they retain the colour and texture without undue shrinkage.
A range is (also called a stove top) a large appliance where surface burners are used to cook food. It is favourable for opera-tion that features to cook the menu items ordered by the customer. It gives intense heat which can be regulated and large quantities of food can be cooked. A vari-ety of range designs are available includ-ing solid tops, open tops and grilled tops. The pots and pans used should be heavy bottomed. After each cooking cycle the equipment should be turned off.
An oven is an enclosed cabinet where food is cooked by dry and hot air. The entire electric oven is fitted with an on-off switch which operates the oven. Once the oven is switched on and the temperature is set it maintains the desired temperature. The lower com-partment is loaded with food which is put on evenly spaced shelves and baked.
It is used as a tawa for the preparation of chappatis, dosas and pan cakes.
It is a deep edged pan and the food is braised, stewed or cooked. When the food is cooked, tilt the pan and remove the food.