DRY HEAT METHODS
In this method food is cooked in a heated metal or frying pan without covering it. Eg. Groundnut.
1. Quick method of cooking.
2. It improves the appearance, flavour and texture of the food.
3. Spices are easily powdered if they are first roasted.
1. Food can be scorched due to carelessness.
2. Roasting denatures proteins reducing their availability.
Grilling or broiling refers to the cooking of food by exposing it to direct heat. In this method food is placed above or in between a red hot surface. Papads, corn, phulkas, chicken can be prepared by this method.
1. Enhances flavour, appearance and taste of the product.
2. It requires less time to cook.
3. Minimum fat is used.
Constant attention is required to prevent charring.
This is a method where food is kept between two heated elements to facilitate browning on both sides. Bread slices are cooked by toasting.
Easy and quick method.
1. Special equipment required.
2. Careful monitoring is needed to prevent charring.
In this method, the food gets cooked in an oven or oven-like appliance by dry heat. The temperature range maintained in an oven is 120 o C - 260 o C.
The food is usually kept uncovered in a container greased with a fat coated paper. Bread, cake, biscuits, pastries and meat are prepared by this method.
1. Baking lends a unique baked flavour to foods.
2. Foods become light and fluffy - cakes, custards, bread.
3. Certain foods can be prepared only by this method - bread, cakes.
4. Uniform and bulk cooking can be achieved. Eg. bun, bread.
5. Flavour and texture are improved.
Variety of dishes can be made.
1. Special equipment like oven is required.
2. Baking skills are necessary to obtain a product with ideal texture, flavour and colour characteristics.
3. Careful monitoring needed to prevent scorching.
Sauteing is a method in which food is lightly tossed in little oil just enough to cover the base of the pan. The pan is covered with a lid and the flame or intensity of heat is reduced.
The food is allowed to cook till tender in its own steam. The food is tossed occasionally, or turned with a spatula to enable all the pieces to come in contact with the oil and get cooked evenly.
The product obtained by this method is slightly moist and tender but without any liquid or gravy. Foods cooked by sauteing are generally vegetables which are used as side dishes in a menu. Sauteing can be combined with other methods to produce variety in meals.
1. Takes less time.
2. Simple technique.
3. Minimum oil is used.
1. Constant attention is needed as there is chance of scorching or burning.
In this method, the food to be cooked is brought into contact with larger amount of hot fat. When food is totally immersed in hot oil, it is called deep fat frying. Samosa, chips, pakoda are examples of deep fat fried foods. In shallow fat frying, only a little fat is used and the food is turned in order that both sides are browned. Eg. Omlette, cutlets, parathas.
2. Very quick method of cooking.
3. The calorific values of food is increased since fat is used as the cooking media.
4. Frying lends a delicious flavour and attractive appearance to foods.
5. Taste and texture are improved.
1. Careful monitoring is required as food easily gets charred when the smoking temperature is not properly maintained.
2. The food may become soggy due to too much oil absorption.
3. Fried foods are not easily digested.
4. Repeated use of heated oils will have ill effects on health.