DISEASE TRANSMITTED THROUGH ARTHROPOD
Arthropod – borne disease are transmitted by arthopods, which includes insects , spider and crustaceans
· Malaria – Anopheles mosquito
· Yellow fever – Aedes mosquito
· Dengue fever – Aedes mosquito
· Encephalitis – Aedes / Culex/ fleas
· Epidemic typhus – Body louse
· Bubonic plague – flea
Dengue is a viral disease , its transmitted by the infective bite of female Aedes Aegypti mosquito, it occurs in two forms.
· Dengue fever
· Dengue Haemorrhagic
· Aedes Aegypti Mosquito
· 2 to 7 days
· Abrupt onset of high fever
· Severe frontal headache
· Pain behind the eyes which worsens with eye movement
· Muscle and joint pains
· Loss of sense of taste and appetite
· Measles like rash over chest and upper limbs
· Nausea and vomiting
Haemagglutination inhibition (HI) test
· Compliment Fixation Test (CFT)
· Neutralization test (NT)
· IGM – capture Enzyme –
· Assay (MAC – ELISA)
· IGM – ELISA
· Rapid Diagnostic tests (NS 1)
Management of Dengue fever is symptomatic and supportive management.
· Bed rest during the acute phase.
· Use cold sponging to keep temperature below 39° C.
· Antipyretics may be used to lower the body temperature. Aspirin/ NSAID should be avoided since it may cause gastritis, vomiting, acidosis and platelet dysfunction.
· oral fluid and electrolyte therapy are recommended for patients with excessive sweating or vomiting.
Encephalitis is an acute inflammation (Swelling) of the brain usually resulting from either a viral infection or due to the body’s immune system mistakenly attacking brain tissue.
· Respiratory droplets of infected person
· Contaminated food and drink
· Mosquito, tick and insect bites
· Skin contact
· Body stiffness
· Irritability and crying more often
· Poor feeding
· Bulging of fontanel
· CSF Analysis
· EEG: Diffuse slow –wave activity
· CT/MRI: Swelling of the brain parenchyma
· Reduction in room light, visitors, & noise
· Maintain airway, breathing and circulation
· Control of seizures
· Treatment of raised ICT.
· Manage fever ( never give aspirin)
· Maintain fluid & electrolyte balance
· Maintain blood-sugar level.
· Feeding: NPO initially then NG Tube Feeding.
· Methyl-prednisolone or Dexa-methasone must be given to children with suspected ADEM.
· Effective viral vaccines
· Control of insect vector
· Eradications of insect breeding sites
· Insect repellents-DEET