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DISEASE TRANSMITTED THROUGH ANIMALS
A disease that is naturally transmitted from animals to human is known as a zoonosis
· Contact with pets
· Contact with soil and water which is contaminated by animals
· Consuming of unpasteurized dairy products
· Cat_ scratch diseases
· Q fever
Anthrax is an acute infectious disease caused by the spore forming bacterium Bacil-lus anthracis. Primarily a disease of herbivorous animals, but it can infect all mammals including humans. The B. Anthracis spores can be found in animal products such as wool, hair, hides, skins, bones, meal and the carcasses of infected animals. The spores can survive in the soil for many years.
1 to 7 days
Up to 60 days post exposure
There are three main modes of transmission:
· Direct contact
· Gastrointestinal infection
· Cutaneous infection
· Respiratory infection
· Loss of Appetite
· Abdominal pain
· Workers who come into contact with animal hides
· Workers involved in the handling of dead animals
· Identification of the typical Gram positive bacilli of Bacillus anthracis from skin lesions
· Respiratory secretions
· Treatment should be initiated as soon as possible.
· Mild cases of cutaneous anthrax may be effectively treated with oral Penicillin or tetracycline
· Treatment of inhalation or gastrointestinal anthrax requires high dose intravenous Penicillin
· Controlling anthrax in livestock
· Preventing gastrointestinal anthrax by forbidding the sale of meat from sick animals or animals that have died of the disease
· Regular cleaning and disinfection of the workplace
· Disinfecting animal products
· Processing hides, wool, and bone by tanning, dyeing, carbonizing or using acid treatment
· Administering vaccines
· Good hygiene practice (hand washing avoiding hand to eye/mouth contact) and need to cover cuts and abrasions.
Tetanus is caused by the infection of wounds by bacterium Clostridium tetani, which produces toxin that damages the ner-vous system and muscles
Bacterium Clostridium Tetani
· Muscle rigidity
· Lockjaw an inability to open the mouth wide
· Firmness of the Abdominal muscles
· Painful muscle spasm
· Cardiac arrhythmia
· High blood pressure
· Diagnosis is entirely clinical
· Clostridium tetani is recovered from the wound in only 30% of patients
· Careful wound cleaning is essential when treating any wound.
· Protection against tetanus with vaccine
· Analgesic should be administered to prevent pain.
· Antibiotic therapy (Metronidazole or Penicillin)
· Patients with mild muscular spasms may be treated with infusions of diazepam
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