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Chapter: 11th 12th std standard Class Nursing Health Care Hospital Hygiene Higher secondary school College Notes

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Dietetics: Food Exchange List

A food exchange list consists of similar foods grouped together so that specified amounts of each food listed in that group have approximately the same energy, carbohydrate, protein and fat content.

FOOD EXCHANGE LIST

 

A food exchange list consists of similar foods grouped together so that specified amounts of each food listed in that group have approximately the same energy, carbohydrate, protein and fat content. So any one food in a particular exchange list can be exchanged for another in the same list. This facilitates a wider choice in selecting foods within every exchange, while controlling the total calorie, protein and fat in the daily diet.

 

Nine food exchange lists have been prescribed which are as follows:

1. Vegetable exchange A

 

Vegetable exchange A includes vegetables with less carbohydrate. 100 gm of vegetables make one exchange which has negligible fat and protein.

This includes leafy vegetables and gourd vegetables.

2. Vegetable exchange B

 

Vegetable exchange B includes vegetables with high carbohydrate contents i.e. with carbohydrate of 7 g and above. e.g : Beetroot, Cauliflower, Carrot are included in this exchange. This provides 10g carbohydrate, 2 g protein, negligible fat and 50 k.cal.

 

3. Fruit exchange

 

Each exchange of fruit on this list provides on an average about 10g of carbohydrate, negligible protein and fat and 50 k.cal.

 

4. Cereal exchange

 

Quantities of cereal / cereal products providing 20 g of carbohydrate is taken as one exchange. Each cereal exchange provides approximately 20 g Carbohydrate, 2 g protein, negligible fat and 100 k.cal.

 

5. Pulse exchange

 

The basis for this exchange is 30 g of raw pulse containing 6 g of protein. So the quantities of pulses providing 6 g of protein is taken as one pulse exchange. Each pulse exchange provides 6 g protein, negligible fat, 15 g carbohydrate and 100 k.cal.

 

6. Flesh food exchange

 

One meat exchange provides 10 g protein, negligible carbohydrate and 70 k.cal. The quantities in this exchange vary from 50 - 60 g, the basis being the protein content.

7. Milk exchange

 

On an average one milk exchange provides 5 g protein and 100 k.cal. The quantities of foods is this exchange is not constant and it varies with the CHO and fat content of foods. The basis for this exchange is protein content of foods.

8. Fat exchange

 

The exchange includes butter, edible fats and oils, cream, nuts and oilseeds. One exchange in this list is that quantity of food, which provides 11 g of fat. On an average one fat exchange provides 11 g fat and 100 k.cal and negligible protein.

9. Sugar exchange

 

This includes sugar, Jaggery, honey, jam, jellies and marmalades. Each exchange on this list provides on an average 5 g carbohydrate and 20 k.cal.

 

These exchange lists make planning of meals simple and quick and are as follows:

VEGETABLE EXCHANGE A

 

These vegetables may be used as desired. Carbohydrates and calories are negligible.

Leafy vegetables            Other vegetables

Amaranth                      Ash gourd

Bathua                           Bitter gourd

Brussels sprouts            Brinjal

Cabbage                         Calabash cucumber

Celery                            Cauliflower

Coriander leaves            Cho-Cho (Marrow)

Curry leaves                  Cucumber

Fenugreek leaves           Drumstick

Lettuce                           French beans

Mint                               Knol-Khol

Rape leaves                   Ladies-fingers

Spinach                         Mango, green

Soya leaves                    Onion stalks

Parwar

Plantain flower

Pumpkin

Raddish

Rhubarb stalks

Ridge gourd

Snake gourd

Tinda

Tomato, green

Turnip

VEGETABLE EXCHANGE B

Carbohydrates - 10 g Calories - 50 k.cal

Root Vegetables

Quantity (g)

Beetroot 75

Carrot 105

Colocasia 45

Onion (medium) 90

Potato 45

Sweet potato 30

Tapioca 30

Yam (elephant) 60

Yam 45

Other Vegetables

Artichoke 60

Broad beans 90

Cluster beans 90

Double beans 50

Jack, tender 105

Jackfruit seeds 30

Leeks 60

Peas 45

Plantain, green 75

Singhara 45

 

CEREAL EXCHANGE

 

30 g provide Calories : 100 k.cal

Carbohydrates : 20 g; Protein : 2 g

 

Bajra Rice flakes

 

Barley Rice puffed

 

Bread* Sago**

 

Cholam (jower) Samai

 

Corn flakes Semolina

 

Maize, dry Vermicelli (savian)

 

Oatmeal Wheat flour

 

Ragi Wheat, broken (dalia)

 

Rice White flour

 

*To meet carbohydrates and calories add 5 g. sugar

 

**Requires supplementation with other high protein foods, when used

 

LEGUME AND PULSE EXCHANGE

 

30 g provide Calories : 100 k.cal

Carbohydrates : 15 g; Protein : 6 g

 

Bengal gram Kabuli Channa

(White gram)

 

Bengal gram, roasted Lentils

 

Black gram Peas, dried

 

Cow gram Rajmah

 

Green gram Rawan

Horse gram Red gram

FLESH FOOD EXCHANGE

Calories - 70 k.cal; Protein 10 g

 

Food Quantity (g)

Beef 60

Crab 120 g

Egg, duck* 2 Nos

Egg, hen* 2 Nos

Fish, big 60

Fish, small 60

Fish, Vajra 60

Fowl 60

Liver, Sheep 60

Mutton muscle* 60

Pigeon 50

Pork 60

Prawn 60

 

* Provides 100 calories

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