Diet in special conditions (diet therapy):
A. Peptic ulcer:
This is a chronic ulcer in the inner lining of the stomach or duodenum. The gastric juice contains hydrochloric acid, which erodes the mucus lining and thus prevents healing of the ulcer. A person who has a peptic ulcer complains of pain in the upper abdomen, which gets worse two or three hours after eating. The pain is worse at night and if a meal is missed.
At first, there may be only indigestion and heartburn. Later, besides pain, there may be vomiting with blood. The motion may be black like tar, due to internal bleeding. The ulcer may get deeper and cause a hole in the wall of the stomach or duodenum, leading to perforation and peritonitis. Bleeding and peritonitis cause death if the condition is not treated immediately.
Peptic ulcer should be prevented by diet and healthy eating habits. For those with peptic ulcer, advise as follows:
a. Have meals at regular times. A bland diet is needed.
b. Avoid too much spicy, greasy and heavy meals.
c. Avoid smoking and alcoholic drinks.
d. Advise to avoid tension and anger.
e. Avoid coffee and tea.
Menu for peptic ulcer patients:
6 a.m : Milk two cups.
8 a.m : Bread two slices, and butter 2 teaspoon, boiled eggs, or cheese two slices, or ground nuts 2 tablespoons and milk two cups.
10 a.m : Milk with sugar two cups.
12 noon : Rice or bread, mashed dhal one cup-minced meat or fish, or cheese or groundnut as above. Boiled potato, and mashed leafy vegetables one
2 p.m : cup. Milk pudding cup. Milk one cup.
4.p.m : Milk with sugar one cup, and two biscuits.
6 p.m : Milk with sugar two cups.
8.p.m : Similar to 12 noon meal.
10 p.m : Milk one cup.
B. Renal Disease:
The special diet for kidney diseases nephritis has already been mentioned (see low protein diet). For urinary tract infections and renal stones, give plenty of fluids. If there is no fever, a bland, well-balanced diet may be given.
C. Diabetes mellitus:
In this disease, there is more glucose level in the blood than normal and some glucose is excreted in the urine. It is due to deficiency or absence of insulin, a hormone produced by the Islets of Langerhans of pancreas. It is common among rice-eaters and usually starts at about 40 years of age.
Diet in this disease must be strictly regulated according to the amount of glucose found in urine and the amount of insulin ordered by the doctor. When an injection of insulin has been given food also has to be given and the doctor' s instructions must be strictly followed.
The patient must be helped to understand the causes of coma. The nurse must advise the patient to prevent forbidden foods such as sweets and sweetened coffee. A diet, outlined in low calorie diet is usually ordered.
D. Hypertension: (High blood pressure)
This is a common condition in middle age, especially in obese people. It can lead to complications such as heart disease, kidney disease and stroke.
To prevent and treat hypertension:
1. Over-weight people should lose weight (see low calorie diet)
2. Low-fat, salt-free diet is needed.
3. Coffee and other stimulants should be avoided.
4. Get the person to relax and avoid tension.
A dietary menu for hypertensive patient is as follows:
Morning : Weak tea one cup
Breakfast : Bread or idli with sugar, or jam and butter, fruit one cup, skimmed milk one cup,nuts one tablespoon.
Mid-morning : Fruit juice 200 ml
Lunch : Rice or chappati one serving,dhal or meat or fish curry one cup, vegetable and potato one serving,curd one cup, fruits one serving, skimmed milk pudding one cup.
Evening : Biscuits two and fruit juice one glass roasted nuts two table spoons.
Dinner : Similar to lunch.
E. Heart Disease:
Heart diseases are more common among older people, especially those who are fat, those who smoke, and those with hypertension.
Diet is important in the treatment and care of those with heart problems. The diet should be low in cholesterol and rich in essential fatty acids. Those who are over-weight should have less calories. They should have little or no salt.
A dietary menu for coronary heart disease patient is as follows:
Morning Weak tea one cup
Breakfast : Bread or idli with sugar, or jam and butter, serving fruit, weak tea one cup. Roasted nuts one tablespoon.
Mid-morning : Fruit juice one glass
Lunch : Rice or chappati one serving dhal or, meat or fish curry one cup, vegetable and potato one serving, curd one cup, fruits one serving,skimmed milk pudding ½ cup.
Evening. : Biscuits two, and fruit juice one glass roasted nuts 2 table spoons.
Dinner : Similar to lunch.
Jaundice is the symptom of liver disorders. Liver is the important organ for fat digestion. Hence fat free and carbho hydrate rich diet should be prescribed for these patients.