Design and Construction of Aquafarms
Some of the basic information required for designing an aquaculture farm would have been collected at the time of determining the feasibility of the project. However, further investigations will usually be needed for designing the most appropriate layout, construction methods and operation. The design of the farm and its construction are as important as the selection of the site in ensuring the success of the project, both technically and economically. As indicated earlier, the ideal sites may not always be available. Deficiencies of the site will in most cases have to be made up by suitable designs for construction and operation. Though engineering designs may be available to meet the requirements of aquaculture in almost any adverse conditions, the economics and practicality of using them for commercial aquaculture render them of little help. In fact, the designs normally used in water or irrigation engineering works cannot be used for aquaculture constructions without very considerable modifications because of the costs involved. This applies especially to pond farms which account for a considerable proportion of present-day aquaculture.
As pond farm design is so site-specific, one cannot conceive of a design that can be of universal use. However, some of the major design features can be defined on the basis of the site physiography, the source and nature of the water supply, type of stock enclosures to be used, organisms to be cultured and the techniques of management, including feeding or food production and harvesting methods. The detailed investigations mentioned earlier should be directed towards obtaining the basic information required to determine the appropriate design features.