Cultivation of Microorganisms
Microorganisms are omnipresent and they exist in soil, air, water, spoiled food, decayed animal and plant residues. They are found in environment as pathogens and normal microflora. Excellent supporting factors are available in nature for microorganisms to survive in the environment. This leads to microbial proliferation as an extended community in nature. The term ‘cultivation of microorganisms’ means growing microorganisms in the laboratory with ample supply of specific nutrients (Figure 5.1). Obligate intracellular parasites like viruses, Rickettsias and Chlamydias are cultivated within living cells.
Survival and growth of microorganisms depend upon the favourable growth environment. Laboratory cultivation plays a crucial role in the isolation, identification and classification of microorganisms. Cultivation of bacteria and fungi by artificial formulated medium is one of the important milestones in the history of Microbiology.
Robert Koch devised the solid medium (by using gelatin) to grow and isolate the microorganisms.
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