Chapter: Civil : Construction Materials: Concrete


Concrete is a mixture of cement (11%), fine aggregates (26%),coarse aggregates (41%) and water (16%) and air (6%).



Concrete is a mixture of cement (11%), fine aggregates (26%),coarse aggregates (41%) and water (16%) and air (6%).

Cement   Powder


Cement + Water   Cement Paste


Cement Paste + Fine Aggregate (FA)   Mortar


Mortar + Coarse Aggregate (CA)   Concrete


Portland cement, water, sand, and coarse aggregate are proportioned and mixed to produce concrete suited to the particular job for which it is intended.


Concrete a composite man-made material, is the most widely used building material in the construction industry. It consists of a rationally chosen mixture of binding material such as lime or cement, well graded fine and coarse aggregates, water and admixtures (to produce concrete with special properties). In a concrete mix, cement and water form a paste or matrix which in addition to filling the voids of the fine aggregate, coats the surface of fine and coarse aggregates and binds them together. The matrix is usually 22-34% of the total volume. Freshly mixed concrete before set is known as wet or green concrete whereas after setting and hardening it is known as set or hardened concrete.




The concrete consisting of cement, sand and coarse aggregates mixed in a suitable proportions in addition to water is called cement concrete. In this type of concrete cement is used as a binding material, sand as fine aggregates and gravel, crushed stones as coarse aggregates.



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