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Chapter: 11th Office Management and Secretaryship : Chapter 6 : Electronic Data Processing

Components of EDP(Electronic Data Processing)

The electronic data processing cycle consists of four stages, or components.

Components of EDP:


The electronic data processing cycle consists of four stages, or components.


1.  Input: Input refers to all the activities associated with recording data and making it available for processing.

2.           Processing: After data is recorded and converted into an appropriate form, it must be processed.

3.           Output

4.           Storage


Each of this stage performs specific function which is enumerated below:





A computer must receive both program statements and data to solve problems. The entry of program statements and data into a computer occurs by means of an input device such as keyboard, mouse and joystick. Regardless of the type of device used they are all instruments of interpretation and communication between people and the computer.


Central Processing Unit (CPU):


CPU is the heart of the computer which makes comparisons, performs calculations, reads, interprets and controls the execution of the instructions. it consists of three separate sub-units.


(1)The Control Unit – Control unit supervises the operations of the entire computer. The control unit instructs the input device when to start and stop transferring data to storage unit and it instructs the storage unit when to start and stop transferring data to output devices.

Thus the control unit does not perform the actual processing operations of the data. Rather, its function is to maintain order and direct the flow of sequence of operations and data within the computer.


(2) The Arithmetic / Logic Unit: Arithmetic and logic unit performs mathematical calculations, compares numeric and non-numeric values and makes decisions. The data flows between this unit and the storage unit during processing.




Storage consists of primary and secondary storage. Primary storage of the computer consists of the devices used to store the information which will be used during the computations. The storage section of the computer is also used to hold both intermediate and final results as the computer proceeds through the program. Common storage devices are RAM. Since the primary storage capacity of computers is limited it is not always possible to hold a large volume of data and instructions in the primary storage. Hence it becomes necessary to have secondary or auxiliary storage for holding data and programs not currently in use. The various secondary storage devices are CD, DVD, USB flash drive (Pendrive), Hard disk etc.


Output Devices:


Output devices are used to record the results obtained by the computer and present them to the outside world. They take information in machine coded form from storage unit and convert them typically into a form that can be used i.e. printed forms. The most commonly used output devices are printers, visual display unit, monitor etc.

Hardware: Hardware is the physical aspect of computers. Computer hardware is the collection of physical parts of a computer system. This includes the computer case, monitor, keyboard, and mouse. It also includes all the parts inside the computer case, such as the hard disk drive, motherboard, video card, and many others. These are called hardware since these components can be seen and touched by the user.

Software: The sets of computer program instructions that direct the operation of the hardware are called software. A complete set of instructions to execute a related set of tasks is a program.These are called software because the programmes cannot be seen or touched. Software instructions are termed as code. Software can be divided into two major categories:

i. System Software : System software means the operating system. It is the collection of programs that directs a computer to perform functions associated with controlling and directing computer hardware and also determines how application software is run.

ii. Application Software: Application softwarereferstothecomputerprograms written for an individual application such as payroll processing or personnel skill analysis.They generally require system software in their execution. For example, the application program may specify reading data from a record stored on a disk; the operating system provides the instructions to manage the physical reading of the record from disk storage.


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11th Office Management and Secretaryship : Chapter 6 : Electronic Data Processing : Components of EDP(Electronic Data Processing) |

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