Clinical Picture of Opioid-related Disorders
Heroin is usually taken by injection, though it can be smoked, inhaled (“snorted”), or taken orally. Smoking and inhalation are commonly seen only when very pure heroin is available and is currently on the rise in the northeastern US; tar heroin is also commonly smoked in the Pacific Northwest. Hydromorphone (Di-laudid®), morphine and meperidine (Demerol®) are also usually injected though they can be taken orally; fentanyl is always in-jected. Codeine and other analgesics made for oral ingestion (such as Percodan® or Percocet®) are usually taken orally. All of these drugs can cause intoxication, withdrawal, dependence and abuse.