Classification of Plants
Based on dichotomy, plants also can be classified into two main groups – Flowering and Non – flowering. Non – flowering plants do not produce seeds and flowering plants produce seeds. Based on their nature of plant body, Non flowering plants are classified into three types: algae, mosses and ferns. Based on their fruit body, flowering plants are classified into two types: gymnosperms and angiosperms.
* Plant is thallus, not well-differentiated into root, stem, and leaves.
* They are predominantly aquatic.
* They are unicellular or multicellular - filamentous. Example - Chara
* Plant body is not differentiated into true root, stem and leaves.
* They are water living plants, needs moisture to complete its life cycle. Hence they are referred to as amphibious plants.
* They do not have any specialized vascular tissues for conduction of water and food. Examples: Funaria
* Plant body is well-differentiated into root, stem, and leaves. Leaves may be large or small.
* Specialized vascular tissues are found for the conduction of water and food.
* Basically they are the first land plants which grows well in shady, moist, and cool places. (Examples: Adiantum)
* Plants are perennial, woody, evergreen with true root, stem and leaves.
* They possess vascular tissues, xylem without vessels and phloem without companion cells.
* Ovules are naked, without ovary. Hence they do not produce fruits. Seed are naked. (Examples: Pinus, Cycas)
* Plant body is well differentiated into true root, stem, and leaves.
* They produce flower with four whorls (calyx, corolla, androecium and gynoecium), hence known as flowering plants.
* Female reproductive organ, ovary is present inside the flower which develops into fruit and ovule develops into seed.
* Plant possess well developed vascular system with xylem vessels and phloem – companion cells.
Angiosperms are the dominant plant forms of present day. Based on the number of cotyledons, angiosperms are broadly divided into two groups. a) monocotyledons b) dicotyledons. Plant seeds which have only one cotyledon are said to be monocots. Plant seeds which have two cotyledons are known as dicots. Example- Paddy (monocot), tamarind (dicot).