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Chapter: 11th 12th std standard Class Nursing Health Care Hospital Hygiene Higher secondary school College Notes

Classification and Treatment of hypothermia

Heat loss during prolonged exposure to cold overwhelms the body ability to produce heat causing hypothermia. Hypothermia is classified as follows:

Hypothermia: Heat loss during prolonged exposure to cold overwhelms the body ability to produce heat causing hypothermia. Hypothermia is classified as follows:

 

Classification of hypothermia

          Centigrade  Fahrenheit

Mild  33      - 36 F         91.4 - 96.8

Moderate    30      -33   86.0 - 91. 4

Severe         27      - 30 80.6 - 86.0

Profound    < 30 < 80.6

Frost bits occurs when the body is exposed to subnormal temperature. Ice crystals farming inside the cell result in permanent circulatory and tissue damage. Areas at risk for frost bite are the carlobes, tip of the nose and fingers and toes. The injured area is white, waxy and firm to touch.

 

Sites for assessing temperature

1.     Oral

 

2.     rectal

 

3.     axillary

4.     tympanic route

 

Nursing care of individual with altered body temperature Hyperthermia - Assessment

1. obtain all vital signs

2. observe skin color


observe for shivering are diaphoresis 

Non - pharmacological therapy are methods that increase heat loss by evaporation, convection conduction or reduction.

Tepid sponge bathes

Bathing with alcohol - water solution


Cooling fans


Allow rest period


Limit physical activity


Reduce external covering on patient' s body to promote heat

loss through reduction and conduction.


Provide fluids (atleast 3 litres per day) to replace fluids loss.

Encourage oral hygiene because oral mucous membranes dry easily from dehydration.

Provide measures to stimulate appetite and offer well balanced meals.

Provide supplemental oxygen therapy as ordered to improve oxygen delivery to body cells.

Control  environmental  temperature  without  inducing


shivering. Eg. Cooling fans


Hypothermia

 

Prevention is the key for patient' s at risk for hypothermia and frostbite.

Educate patient who are at risk for hypothermia (Eg. the very young, the very old, persons debilitated by trauma, stroke, diabetes, drug or alcohol intoxication, sepsis, mentally ill, alcohol intoxication, malnutrition).

 

Treatment

 

Prevent a further decrease in body temperature.

Remove wet clothes, provide dry ones and wrap the client in blanket.

If the patient is conscious offer warm liquids such as milk or soups

Place the patient in a warm room

 

When the patient reaches emergency treatment, patients are closely monitored for cardiac irregularities and electrolyte imbalances.

 


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11th 12th std standard Class Nursing Health Care Hospital Hygiene Higher secondary school College Notes : Classification and Treatment of hypothermia |


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