EFFECTS OF DEHYDRATION
When water is constantly lost from
the body as in severe vomiting, diarrhoea, excessive sweating or excessive
urine formation due to treatment with diuretics, the total water content of the
body is reduced. Extra cellular and intra cellular fluid decreases leading to dehydration.
Effects of dehydration
Tongue is dry.
2. Pinch test is done by raising and releasing the skin. Slow
return of skin to original position indicates decreased ECF.
3. Decrease in plasma volume reduces cardiac output and may
lead to cardiac failure.
Dehydration can be prevented by
taking sufficient amounts of water as fluids. The correction of dehydration is
Oral rehydration therapy
It is the administration of fluid to
prevent or correct dehydration.
Oral rehydration salt
WHO, UNICEF formula consist of the
NaCl - 3.5 g, NaHCO3 - 2.5 g, KCl - 1.5g and glucose - 20 g to be dissolved in
one litre of potable drinking water.
The Glucose present aids in the absorption of sodium
chloride and potassium chloride apart from giving energy. This mixture is
administered through the oral route at frequent intervals until the normal
state is attained.
Potable water is that water which is
safe and wholesome. It should be:
free from pathogenic agents
free from harmful chemical substance
pleasant to taste; free from colour
usable for domestic purpose.