This method assumes that the economic dispatch problem has to be solved repeatedly by moving the generators from one economically optimum schedule to another as the load changes by a reasonably small amount.

**BASE POINT AND PARTICIPATION
FACTORS**

^{Ø }This method assumes that the economic dispatch
problem has to be solved repeatedly by moving the generators from one economically
optimum schedule to another as the load changes by a reasonably small amount.^{}

^{ }

^{Ø }We start from a given schedule-the *base
point.*^{}

Next, the scheduler assumes a load change and
investigates how much each generating unit needs to be moved (i.e.,“participate”
in the load change) in order that the new load be served at the most economic
operating point.

^{Ø }Assume that both the first and second
derivatives in the cost versus power output function are available (Le., both *F;* and *Fy* exist). The incremental cost curve of **i ^{th}** unit given in the fig.

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^{Ø }**As **the unit load is changed by an amount**, **the^{}

(13) This is true for each of the ** N** units on the system, so
that

The total change in generation (=change in
total system demand) is, of course, the sum of the individual unit changes. Let
P_{d} be the total demand on the generators (where P_{load}+P_{loss}&),
then

The earlier equation, 15, can be used to find the ** participation
factor** for each unit as follows

^{Ø }The computer implementation of such a scheme of
economic dispatch is straightforward.^{}

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^{Ø }It might be done by provision of tables of the
values of *FY* as a function of the
load levels and devising a simple scheme to take the existing load plus the
projected increase to look up these data and compute the factors.^{}

^{ }

^{Ø }Somewhat less elegant scheme to provide
participation factors would involve a repeat economic dispatch calculation at*.*^{}

^{ }

^{Ø }The base-point economic generation values are
then subtracted from the new economic generation values and the difference
divided to provide the participation factors.^{}

^{ }

^{Ø }This scheme works well in computer
implementations where the execution time for the economic dispatch is short and
will always give consistent answers when units reach limits, pass through break
points on piecewise linear incremental cost functions, or have non convex cost
curves.^{}

^{ }

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