Local self Government
VI. Answer in detail.
1. Write in details about the salient features of the 73rd & 74th Constitutional Amendment Act (1992).
• Panchayats and Minicipalities will be "institutions of self-government".
• Basic Units of Democratic System - Grama Sabhas (Villages) and Ward Committees (Municipalities) comprising all the adult members registered as voters
• Three-tier system of panchayats at village, intermediate block/taluk/mandal and district levels. Smaller states with population below 2 million only two tiers.
• Seats at all levels filled by direct election.
• To provide reservation of seats for scheduled castes and sheduled tribes at all levels.
• One third of the seats to be reserved for SCs and STs. Also one third to be reserved for women.
• To hold elections regularly every 5 years. In the event of dissolution, elections are compulsory within six months.
2. Describe the major problems and challenges faced by the local self governments.
• Lack of clear demarcation of powers and functions of local bodies
• Allocation of funds and needs assessment are not matched
• Combined with accountability, the local self governments demand for more autonomy and economic freedom may be addressed
• Role of caste, class and religion in decision making at the local self governments
• Poor accountability of elected members and officials at the grassroots of democracy
VII. Activity (For Students)
1. Meet your Panchayat President / Municipal Chairman and discuss with him how the local self goverment is being administered.