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Chapter: 11th Computer Applications : HTML - Adding multimedia elements and Forms

Working with Forms - HTML

Forms are used to receive information from the user.

Working with Forms

 

Forms are used to receive information from the user. Forms are commonly used to allow users to register on a Web site, to log in to a Web site, to order a product, and to send feedback. In search engines, forms are used to accept the keywords for search.

The <form> tag is used to create a form. An HTML from starts with <form> and ends with </form> tag. Forms contain many types of form elements, such as text boxes, radio buttons, check boxes, buttons and drop-down lists.

The form has a special element, which is submit button, which will submit the entries of a form to a server application to process the entries. Each element in the form is assigned a name using the name attribute. Users enter values into the text boxes, or make selections from the radio buttons, check boxes, and drop down lists. The values they enter or select are passed with the name of the corresponding form element to the Web server.

 

Attributes frequently used with <form> tag

 

The important attributes used with the <form> tag are method and action attributes.

 

Method

The method attribute of the form tag is used to identify how the form element names and values will be sent to the server. The get method will append the names of the form elements and their values to the URL. The post method will send the names and values of the form elements as packets.

 

Action

The action attribute identifies the server side program or script that will process the form. The action will be the name of a Common Gateway Interface (CGI) program written in programming languages like Perl, JavaScript, PHP or Active Server Pages (ASP). (This will be discussed with JavaScript in this book).

 

General Format of <form> tag

<Form method=get/post action= “back_end_server_script”>

Form elements

</Form>

 

Form Controls:

 

In HTML, there are different types of form controls are used to collect data. They are Text box, Password, Checkbox, Radio buttons, Text area, Select box, Submit and Reset Button.


 

1. <Input> Tag

Most of the form controls are created by using <input> tag. The <input> is an empty tag used to create different form elements or controls such as text box, radio buttons so on.

 

Attributes of <input> tag:

 

Type:

This attribute is used define the type of control to be created by <input> tag. The values of type attribute is listed below:

Table: 12.1



Value of type attribute and Description

 

Text : Create a Text Box. The element used to get all kind of text input such as name, address etc.,

Password : Similar as Text box. But, while entering data, the characters are appearing as coded symbols such as asterisk.

Checkbox : Check box is an element appearing like a small square box. Whenthe user click on the square a tiny tick mark will appear inside the square. This element is used to select multiple options.

Radio Button : Radio button is used to select any one of the multiple options from the list. This element looks like a small circle, when the user select an item, a tiny dot will appear within the circle. If the user selects another option, previously selected option will be deselected. This means, user can select any one of the given option form a group.

Reset : It is a special command button used to clear all the entries made in the form.

Submit : It is also a special command button used to submit all the entries made in the form to the backend server.

Button : This is a standard graphical button on the form used to call functions on click.

 

Name:

This attribute of <input> tag is used to assign a name to the input controls. When the form is submitted, the data values are passed to the server along with the names of the controls.

 

Value:

This attribute is used to define default value to some controls.

 

Size:

This is used to set the width of the input text in terms of characters. It is applicable only for textbox and password boxes.

 

Maxlength:

This attribute of <input> tag is used to set the length of the input character (number of characters to be inputted) to the textbox and password boxes.

 

Illustration 12.7: An HTML code to demonstrate Form and Form controls (Login form)

<html>

<head>

        <title> Login Form </title>

<body>

        <h3 align=center> TamilNadu State Council of Educational Research and Training, Chennai </h3>

<Form Action = "mailto:abcd.xyz@com" method=post>

        <p> User Name:

        <Input type = text name="user_name" size = 20 maxlength = 15>

        </p>

        <p> Password:

        <Input type = password name="pass" size = 20 maxlength = 15>

        </p>

        <Input type = reset value = "Clear"> <Input type = submit value = "Login">

</Form>

</body>

</html>

The output will be:


Note: Data received from the user can send to receiver through mail using “mailto” action.

 

Illustration 12.8: An HTML code to demonstrate Form and Form controls (Text box, checkbox and radio buttons)

<html>

<head>

        <title> HTML - Form and Controls </title> </head>

<body>

<h3 align=center> Forms and Controls </h3>

<Form action="mailto:abcd.xyz@com" method=post> <p> Student Name:

        <Input type=text name=name size=30 maxlength=25></p> <p> Gender:

        <input type=radio name=gender value=boy> Boy <input type=radio name=gender value=girl> Girl </p>

        <p> Subjects:

        <input type=checkbox name=sub value=Tam> Tamil

        <input type=checkbox name=sub value=Tel> Telugu

        <input type=checkbox name=sub value=Eng> English

        <input type=checkbox name=sub value=Phy> Physics

        <input type=checkbox name=sub value=Eco> Economics </p>

        <input type=reset name=reset value="Clear">

        <input type=submit name=submit value="Submit">

</Form>

</body>

</html>

The output will be:



2. <Select> Tag

 

The <select> tag is used to create dropdown list box in HTML. It provides a list of various options as a dropdown list. This element is more helpful when a number of options are to be displayed in a limited space. The <option> tag is used to specify list items.

 

Attributes of <Select> tag:

Name – Provide the name to the control, which is sent to the server.

Size – Determine the style of dropdown list box.

Size = 1 dropdown list box

Size = 2 List box

Multiple – Allows user to select multiple values.

 

Attributes of <Option> tag:

 

Selected – Indicate default selection

Value – Value to be submitted to server

 

Illustration 12.9: An HTML code to demonstrate Form and Form controls (Dropdown List box)

<html>

<head>

        <title> HTML - Form and Controls </title> </head>

<body>

<h3 align=center> Forms and Controls </h3>

<Form action="mailto:abcd.xyz@com" method=post>

<p> Student Name:

<Input type=text name=name size=30 maxlength=25>

</p>

<p> City / Town:

<Select name = area size= 1>

        <option value = CHN> Chennai </option>

        <option value = MDR selected> Madurai </option>

        <option value = CBO> Coimbatore </option>

        <option value = KKM> Kanyakumari </option>

</Select>

</p>

<input type=reset name=reset value="Clear">

<input type=submit name=submit value="Submit">

</Form>

</body>

</html>

The output will be


 

3. <Textarea> tag

 

The <Textarea> tag used to receive multi line text data as input. It is a container tag. The main attributes of <Textarea> are

 

Name – Used to define name to the control

Rows – Specifies the number of rows in the text area control

Cols – Specifies the number of columns in the text area. (number of characters in a

 

Illustration 12.10: An HTML code to demonstrate Form and Form controls (Text Area – Multiline input)

<html>

<head>

        <title> HTML - Form and Controls </title> </head>

<body>

<h3 align=center> Forms and Controls </h3>

<Form action="mailto:abcd.xyz@com" method=post>

        <p> Student Name:

        <Input type=text name=name size=30 maxlength=25></p>

        <p> Email:

        <input type=text name=mail size=30 maxlength=25> </p>

        <p> Comments: <br>

        <Textarea rows=5 cols=50 name=comments> </Textarea> </p>

        <input type=reset name=reset value="Clear">

        <input type=submit name=submit value="Submit">

</Form>

</body>

</html>

The output will be:


 

Illustration 12.11: An HTML code to demonstrate All Form controls discussed in this chapter

<html>

<head>

        <title> HTML - Form and Controls </title> </head>

<body>

<h3 align=center> Students Data Entry Form </h3>

<Form action="mailto:abcd.xyz@com" method=post>

        <p> Student Name:

        <Input type=text name=name size=30 maxlength=25></p>

        <p> Email:

        <input type=text name=mail size=30 maxlength=25> </p>

        <p> Gender:

        <input type=radio name=gender value=boy> Boy

        <input type=radio name=gender value=girl> Girl </p>

        <p> Subjects:

        <input type=checkbox name=sub value=Tam> Tamil

        <input type=checkbox name=sub value=Tel> Telugu

        <input type=checkbox name=sub value=Eng> English

        <input type=checkbox name=sub value=Phy> Physics

        <input type=checkbox name=sub value=Eco> Economics

        </p>

        <p> City / Town:

<Select name = area>

        <option value = CHN> Chennai </option>

        <option value = MDR selected> Madurai </option>

        <option value = CBO> Coimbatore </option>

        <option value = KKM> Kanyakumari </option>

</Select> </p>

        <p> Comments: <br>

        <Textarea rows=5 cols=50 name=comments> </Textarea>

        </p>

        <input type=reset name=reset value="Clear">

        <input type=submit name=submit value="Submit">

</Form>

</body>

</html>

The output will be:



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