The World Wide Web (commonly shortened to the Web) is a system of interlinked hypertext
documents accessed via the Internet. With a Web browser, a user
views Web pages that may contain text, images, videos,
and other multimedia and navigates between them using hyperlinks.
Wide Web was created in 1989 by British scientist Sir Tim Berners-Lee,
working at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) in Geneva,
Switzerland, and released in 1992.
then, Berners-Lee has played an active role in guiding the development of Web
standards (such as the markup languages in which Web pages are
composed), and in recent years has advocated his vision of a Semantic Web.
How it works
Web page on the World Wide Web normally begins either by typing the URL
of the page into a Web browser, or by following a hyperlink to
that page or resource. The Web browser then initiates a series of communication
messages, behind the scenes, in order to fetch and display it.
the server-name portion of the URL is resolved into an IP address using
the global, distributed Internet database known as the domain name
system, or DNS. This IP address is necessary to contact and send data packets
to the Web server.
browser then requests the resource by sending an HTTP request to the Web
server at that particular address.
case of a typical Web page, the HTML text of the page is requested first
and parsed immediately by the Web browser, which will then make
additional requests for images and any other files that form a part of the
measuring a website's popularity are usually based on the number of 'page
views' or associated server 'hits', or file requests, which take
received the required files from the Web server, the browser then renders
the page onto the screen as specified by its HTML, CSS, and other Web
languages. Any images and other resources are incorporated to produce the
on-screen Web page that the user sees.
formal standards and other technical specifications define the operation of
different aspects of the World Wide Web, the Internet, and computer information
the documents are the work of the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C),
headed by Berners-Lee, but some are produced by the Internet Engineering
Task Force (IETF) and other organizations.
when Web standards are discussed, the following publications are seen as
Recommendations for markup languages, especially HTML and XHTML,
from the W3C. These define the structure and interpretation of hypertext
Recommendations for stylesheets, especially CSS, from the
from Ecma International.
Recommendations for the Document Object Model, from W3C.
publications provide definitions of other essential technologies for the World
Wide Web, including, but not limited to, the following:
Resource Identifier (URI), which is a universal system for
referencing resources on the
Internet, such as hypertext documents and images. URIs, often called URLs, are
defined by the IETF's RFC 3986 / STD 66: Uniform Resource Identifier
(URI): Generic Syntax, as well as its predecessors and numerous URI scheme-defining RFCs;
Transfer Protocol (HTTP), especially as defined by RFC 2616:
HTTP/1.1 and RFC 2617: HTTP Authentication, which specify how the browser and server authenticate each other.
significant advance in Web technology was Sun Microsystems' Java platform.
It enables Web pages to embed small programs (called applets) directly
into the view. These applets run on the end-user's computer, providing a richer
user interface than simple Web pages.
client-side applets never gained the popularity that Sun had hoped for a
variety of reasons, including lack of integration with other content (applets
were confined to small boxes within the rendered page) and the fact that many
computers at the time were supplied to end users without a suitably installed Java
Virtual Machine, and so required a download by the user before applets
Flash now performs many of the functions that were originally envisioned for
Java applets, including the playing of video content, animation, and some rich GUI
features. Java itself has become more widely used as a platform and
language for server-side and other programming.
other hand, is a scripting language that was initially developed for use
within Web pages. The standardized version is ECMAScript.
very little to do with Java, although the syntax of both languages is derived
from the C programming language.
has become a much more powerful technology than its creators originally
The manipulation of a page's DOM after the page is delivered to the client has
HTML (DHTML), to emphasize a shift away from static HTML displays.
cases, all the optional information and actions available on a
development techniques used for creating interactive web applications that
provide a method whereby parts within
a Web page may be updated, using new information obtained over the network at a
later time in response to user actions.
allows the page to be more responsive, interactive and interesting, without the
user having to wait for whole-page reloads. Ajax is seen as an important aspect
of what is being called Web 2.0. Examples of Ajax techniques currently
in use can be seen in Gmail, Google Maps, and other dynamic Web
Publishing Web pages
production is available to individuals outside the mass media. In order
to publish a Web page, one does not have to go through a publisher or
other media institution, and potential readers could be found in all corners of
different kinds of information are available on the Web, and for those who wish
to know other societies, cultures, and peoples, it has become easier.
increased opportunity to publish materials is observable in the countless
personal and social networking pages, as well as sites by families, small
shops, etc., facilitated by the emergence of free Web hosting services
WWW prefix in Web addresses
letters "www" are commonly found at the beginning of Web addresses
because of the long-standing practice of naming Internet hosts (servers)
according to the services they provide.
of such prefixes is not required by any technical standard; indeed, the first
Web server was at "nxoc01.cern.ch", and even
today many Web sites exist without a "www" prefix. The
"www" prefix has no meaning in the way the main Web site is shown.
The "www" prefix is simply one choice for a Web site's host name.
browsers will automatically try adding "www." to the beginning, and
possibly ".com" to the end, of typed URLs if no host is found without
them. ll major web browser will also prefix "http://www." and append
".com" to the address bar contents if the Control and Enter keys are
Interface Design Tools
Tools used for designing the interface, development environments for
writing code, and toolkits of graphical user interfaces.
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