Clipping is the word formation process which consists in the reduction of a word to one of its parts. These words are called clipped words.
advertisement – ad
automobile – auto
cabriolet – cab
examination – exam
fanatic – fan
gasoline – gas
gymnasium – gym
hamburger – burger
influenza – flu
laboratory – lab
luncheon – lunch
mathematics – math
memorandum – memo
moving picture – movie
pantaloons – pants
photograph – photo
refrigerator – fridge
university – varsity
zoological park – zoo
telephone - phone
a. Find out the clipped words for the following.
1. aeroplane - plane
2. microphone - mike
3. exhibition - expo
4. kilogram - kilo
5. cafeteria – cafe
b. Find and use the clipped words in your own sentence.
1. photograph - photo : This photo is good.
2. gymnasium - gym : I go to the gym everyday.
3. luncheon - lunch : We had our lunch at this hotel.
4. advertisement - ad : Give an ad for this product.
5. zoological park – zoo : My friends visited the zoo yesterday.
A blend word or a blend is a word formed from parts of two or more other words.
binary + digit = bit
breakfast + lunch = brunch
camera + recorder = camcorder
electro + execute = electrocute
electronic + mail = email
mechanics + electronics = mechatronics
motor + pedals = moped
motor + hotel = motel
news + broadcast = newscast
smoke + fog = smog
Spanish + English = Spanglish
vital + amine = vitamin
a. Find out the clipped words for the following.
1. international + police = interpol
2. helicopter + pad = helipad
3. motor + hotel = motel
4. education + satellite = edusat
5. electronic + commerce = E-commerce
b. Use the blended words in your own sentence.
Answer: Don’t touch that wire or else you will electrocute yourself.
2. spanglish -
Answer: She speaks spanglish well.
3. moped -
Answer: Next week I will buy
4. brunch -
Answer: I had my brunch at 12 noon.
5. smog –
Answer: The thick smog caused many problems to the people of this area.
An idiom (also called idiomatic expression) is an expression, word or phrase that has a figurative meaning conventionally understood by native speakers. This meaning is different from the literal meaning of the idiom's individual elements. In other words, idioms don't mean exactly what the words say. They have, however, hidden meaning.
Example: "Kick the bucket".
The meaning of the expression is different from the literal meaning or definition of the word of which it is made. The meaning is used figuratively - "to die". Here are some interesting idioms.
1. Bad Egg - A dishonest or ill-behaved person.
Example: He was a bad egg.
2. A piece of cake - A task that can be accomplished very easily.
Example: English is a piece of cake.
1. The ball is in your court - It is your turn to make a decision.
Example: I've done more than my share in this partnership. The ball is in your court to decide what happens next.
2. Saved by the bell - Saved by a last minute intervention.
Example: The accused was saved by the bell otherwise the judge would have pronounced the sentence today itself.
1. On cloud nine - Blissfully happy.
Example: The grandmother was on cloud nine to see her grandson after a long time.
2. At sixes and sevens - confused or in a state of disorder.
Example: The government were at sixes and sevens over what to do about the unemployment rate.
1. Caught red-handed - to catch someone in the act of doing something.
Example: He was caught red-handed while stealing those candy bars.
2. Black sheep - to be the outcast, odd one out, unlike the others.
Example: Rachel is the black sheep in the team.
1.At a snail’s pace - Moving very slowly.
Example: Traffic is moving at a snail’s pace.
2.let the cat out of the bag - reveal a secret.
Example: Who let the cat out of the bag about the surprise party?
Match with the meanings for the following Idioms.
1. a piece of cake - Moving very slowly
2. on cloud nine - easy
3. perfect ten - Blissfully happy
4. at a snail’s pace - someone who is cherished above all others
5. apple of my eye - completely perfect
[Answer: 1-b, 2-c, 3-e, 4-a, 5-d]
1. a piece of cake - b) easy
2. on cloud nine - c) Blissfully happy
3. perfect ten - e) completely perfect
4. at a snail’s pace - a) Moving very slowly
5. apple of my eye - d) someone who is cherished above all others
Fill in the blanks with the meanings for the following Idioms.
1. take five to take a short break, about 5 minutes.
2. pieces of eight an old silver Spanish coin, worth 8 reales.
3. black and blue bruised, either physically or emotionally.
4. wild goose chase a worthless hunt or chase.
5. seventh heaven a state of bliss or extreme happiness
6. a couch potato a lazy individual, addicted to television-watching
7. the lion’s share the largest part or portion of something
8. in black and white in a written or printed form, more likely to be true or definite
9. drop the ball to make a mistake; to miss an opportunity.
10.cat's meow Something or someone highly enjoyable, or impressive
VOCABULARY - ADDITIONAL
Choose the clipped form of the word for----------------
1. Choose the clipped form of the word for ‘bicycle'.
[Answer: (b) bike]
2. Choose the clipped form of the word for ‘advertisement'.
[Answer: (b) ad]
3. Choose the clipped form of the word for ‘demonstration'.
[Answer: (a) demo ]
4. Choose the clipped from of the word for ‘motorbike'.
[Answer: (d) bike]
5. Choose the clipped from of the word for ‘pressure cooker’.
[Answer: (a) cooker]
6. Choose the clipped from of the word for ‘handkerchief'.
[Answer: (c) kerchief]
7. Choose the clipped from of the word for ‘newscast'.
[Answer: (d) news]
8. Choose the clipped from of the word for ‘public house’.
[Answer: (a) pub]
Choose the blended form of---------------
1.Choose the right combination for the blended word ‘interpol’.
(a) international + policy
(b)interstate + police
(c) international + politics
(d)international + police
[Answer: d) international + police]
2.Choose the right combination for the blended word ‘lecdeiri.
(a) lector + demarcate
(b)lecture + demand
(c) lecture + demonstration
(d)lecture + demonstrator
[Answer: (c) lecture + demonstration
3.Choose the right combination for the blended word ‘brunch’
(a) brief + lunch
(b)breakfast + lunch
(c) break + crunch
(d)break + lunch
[Answer: b) breakfast + lunch]
4.Choose the right combination for the blended word ‘medicare’
(a) medical + scare
(c) medical + care
b) medicine + care
(d) medical + daycare
[Answer: (c) medical + care]
5.Choose the right combination for the blended word ‘edutainment’.
(b) education + entertainment
(d) educate + entertain
[Answer: (b) education + entertainment]
6. Choose the right combination for the blended word ‘infotech’.
(b) inform + technical
(c) information + technology
(d) information + technique
[Answer: (c) information + technology]
7. Choose the right combination for the blended word ‘bit’.
(b) billion + digit
(d) binary +.digit
[Answer: (d) binary + digit]
8. Choose the right combination for the blended word ‘byte’.
(b) binary + template
(d) bypass + technique
[Answer: (a) binary+table]
DIOMS - ADDITIONAL EXERCISES
1. A hard nut to crack - a difficult problem to deal with.
Example This problem is a hard nut to crack.
2. In the soup - to be in a difficult situation.
Example : When Harry lost his job, he was really in the soup.
3. Bread and butter - basic things needed to survive.
Example Teaching is my bread and butter.
4. To bring home the bacon - to earn a salary.
Example : I’m looking for a job and so I need to do something to bring home the bacon.
5. have bigger fish to fry - have more important thing to fry
Example : I have bigger fish to fry than this silly matters.
1. Get the ball rolling - Do something to begin a process.
Example : As we are going to get the ball rolling now, please be seated.
2. Ball park figure - A rough estimate.
Example : Do you have a ball park figure for the cost of the renovations?
3. Heavy Hitter - a powerful, influential person.
Example : Tendulkar is a heavy hitter.
1. A million and one - very many.
Example There are no answers for a million and one questions asked by these people.
2. Be in seventh heaven - Extremely happy.
Example : She was in seventh heaven, where she watched her favourite band play live.
3. Six feet under - Dead and buried.
Example : You can’t get my property, until I am six feet under.
1. Beet red - dark red.
Example : My sister’s face turned beet red when I caught her singing in front of a mirror.
2. Black and Blue - bruised and beaten.
Example : We found the poor guy black and blue, near the train tracks.
3. Golden opportunity - The perfect chance.
Example : The model’s conference was a golden opportunity for me to sell my beauty products.
1. Cat nap - a short sleep.
Example : I am going to have a cat nap while you’re cooking dinner.
2. Dog’s days - very hot days.
Example: We sleep in the basement during the dog days of August.
3. Horse around - play roughly
Example : If you are going to horse around, please go outside.