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Chapter: Flexible Alternating Current Transmission System - Emerging FACTS Controllers

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V-I Characteristics of STATCOM

A typical V-I characteristic of a STATCOM is depicted in Fig.



Ø   A typical V-I characteristic of a STATCOM is depicted in Fig.


Ø   The STATCOM can supply both the capacitive and the inductive compensation and is able to independently control its output current over the rated maximum capacitive or inductive range irrespective of the amount of ac-system voltage.


Ø   The STATCOM can provide full capacitive-reactive power at any system voltage—even as low as 0.15 pu.



Ø   The characteristic of a STATCOM reveals another strength of this technology: that it is capable of yielding the full output of capacitive generation almost independently of the system voltage (constant-current output at lower voltages). This capability is particularly useful for situations in which the STATCOM is needed to support the system voltage during and after faults where voltage collapse would otherwise be a limiting factor.


Ø   Figure illustrates that the STATCOM has an increased transient rating in both the capacitive- and the nductive-operating regions.


Ø   The maximum attainable transient overcurrent in the capacitive region is determined by the maximum current turn-off capability of the converter switches.


Ø   In the inductive region, the converter switches are naturally commutated; therefore, the transient-current rating of the STATCOM is limited by the maximum allowable junction temperature of the converter switches.



Ø   In practice, the semiconductor switches of the converter are not lossless, so the energy stored in the dc capacitor is eventually used to meet the internal losses of the converter, and the dc capacitor voltage diminishes.


Ø   However, when the STATCOM is used for reactive-power generation, the converter itself can keep the capacitor charged to the required voltage level. This task is accomplished by making the output voltages of the converter lag behind the ac-system voltages by a small angle (usually in the 0.18–0.28 range).


Ø   In this way, the converter absorbs a small amount of real power from the ac system to meet its internal losses and keep the capacitor voltage at the desired level.


Ø   The same mechanism can be used to increase or decrease the capacitor voltage and thus, the amplitude of the converter-output voltage to control the var generation or absorption.


Ø   The reactive- and real-power exchange between the STATCOM and the ac system can be controlled independently of each other.


Ø   Any combination of realpower generation or absorption with var generation or absorption is achievable if the STATCOM is equipped with an energy-storage device of suitable capacity, as depicted in Fig.With this capability, extremely effective control strategies for the modulation of reactive- and real-output power can be devised to improve the transient- and dynamic-system-stability limits.


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