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Chapter: Flexible Alternating Current Transmission System - Emerging FACTS Controllers

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Principle of Operation and Advantages- STATCOM

A STATCOM is a controlled reactive-power source. It provides the desired reactive-power generation and absorption entirely by means of electronic processing of the voltage and current waveforms in a voltage-source converter (VSC).

PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION

 

Ø   A STATCOM is a controlled reactive-power source. It provides the desired reactive-power generation and absorption entirely by means of electronic processing of the voltage and current waveforms in a voltage-source converter (VSC).

 

Ø   A single-line STATCOM power circuit is shown in Fig.(a),where a VSC is connected to a utility bus through magnetic coupling.

 

Ø   In Fig. (b), a STATCOM is seen as an adjustable voltage source behind a reactance meaning that capacitor banks and shunt reactors are not needed for reactive-power generation and absorption, thereby giving a STATCOM a compact design, or small footprint, as well as low noise and low magnetic impact.

 

 

Ø   The exchange of reactive power between the converter and the ac system can be controlled by varying the amplitude of the 3-phase output voltage, Es, of the converter, as illustrated in Fig. (c).

 

Ø   If the amplitude of the output voltage is increased above that of the utility bus voltage, Et, then a current flows through the reactance from the converter to the ac system and the converter generates capacitive-reactive power for the ac system.

 

Ø   If the amplitude of the output voltage is decreased below the utility bus voltage, then the current flows from the ac system to the converter and the converter absorbs inductive-reactive power from the ac system.

 


The STATCOM principle diagram: (a) a power circuit;(b) an equivalent circuit;(c) a power exchange

 

 

Ø   If the output voltage equals the ac system voltage, the reactive-power exchange becomes zero, in which case the STATCOM is said to be in a floating state.

 

Ø   Adjusting the phase shift between the converter-output voltage and the acsystem voltage can similarly control real-power exchange between the converter and the ac system. In other words, the converter can supply real power to the ac system from its dc energy storage if the converter-output voltage is made to lead the ac-system voltage.

 

Ø   On the other hand, it can absorb real power from the ac system for the dc system if its voltage lags behind the ac-system voltage.

 

 

Ø   A STATCOM provides the desired reactive power by exchanging the instantaneous reactive power among the phases of the ac system.

 

Ø   The mechanism by which the converter internally generates and/ or absorbs the reactive power can be understood by considering the relationship between the output and input powers of the converter. The converter switches connect the dc-input circuit directly to the ac-output circuit. Thus the net instantaneous power at the acoutput terminals must always be equal to the net instantaneous power at the dc-input terminals (neglecting losses).

 

Ø   Assume that the converter is operated to supply reactive-output power. In this case, the real power provided by the dc source as input to the converter must be zero.

 

Ø   Furthermore, because the reactive power at zero frequency (dc) is by definition zero, the dc source supplies no reactive ower as input to the converter and thus clearly plays no part in the generation of reactive-output power by the converter.

 

Ø   In other words, the converter simply interconnects the three output terminals so that the reactive-output currents can flow freely among them. If the terminals of the ac system are regarded in this context, the converter establishes a circulating reactive-power exchange among the phases. However, the real power that the converter exchanges at its ac terminals with the ac system must, of course, be supplied to or absorbed from its dc terminals by the dc capacitor.

 

Ø   Although reactive power is generated internally by the action of converter switches, a dc capacitor must still be connected across the input terminals of the converter.

 

Ø   The primary need for the capacitor is to provide a circulating-current path as well as a voltage source.

 

Ø   The magnitude of the capacitor is chosen so that the dc voltage across its terminals remains fairly constant to prevent it from contributing to the ripples in the dc current. The VSC-output voltage is in the form of a staircase wave into which smooth sinusoidal current from the ac system is drawn, resulting in slight fluctuations in the output power of the converter.

 

Ø   However, to not violate the instantaneous power-equality constraint at its input and output terminals, the converter must draw a fluctuating current from its dc source.

 

Ø   Depending on the converter configuration employed, it is possible to calculate the minimum capacitance required to meet the system requirements, such as ripple limits on the dc voltage and the rated-reactivepower support needed by the ac system.

 

Ø   The VSC has the same rated-current capability when it operates with the capacitive- or inductive-reactive current.

 

Ø   Therefore, a VSC having a certain MVA rating gives the STATCOM twice the dynamic range in MVAR (this also contributes to a compact design). A dc capacitor bank is used to support (stabilize) the controlled dc voltage needed for the operation of the VSC.

 

Ø   The reactive power of a STATCOM is produced by means of power-electronic equipment of the voltage-source-converter type.

 

Ø   The VSC may be a 2- level or 3-level type, depending on the required output power and voltage . A number of VSCs are combined in a multi-pulse connection to form the STATCOM.

In the steady state, the VSCs operate with fundamental-frequency switching to minimize converter losses. However, during transient conditions caused by line faults, a pulse width–modulated (PWM) mode is used to prevent the fault current from entering the VSCs . In this way, the STATCOM is able to withstand transients on the ac side without blocking.

 

Advantages of STATCOM

 

1.     It occupies a small footprint, for it replaces passive banks of circuit elements by compact electronic converters;

 

2.     It offers modular, factory-built equipment, thereby reducing site work and commissioning time; and

 

3.     It uses encapsulated electronic converters, thereby minimizing its environmental impact.

 


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