Typical Input Signals:
o Impulse Signal
o Step Signal
o Ramp Signal
o Parabolic Signal

**Typical Input Signals**

o Impulse Signal

o Step Signal

o Ramp Signal

o Parabolic Signal

Two types of inputs can be applied to a control system. Command Input or Reference Input yr(t).

Disturbance Input w(t) *(*External disturbances w(t) are typically uncontrolled variations in the load on a control system).

In systems controlling mechanical motions, load disturbances may represent forces.

In voltage regulating systems, variations in electrical load area major source of disturbances.

o One of the types of Modeling a system

o Using first principle, differential equation is obtained

o Laplace Transform is applied to the equation assuming zero initial conditions

o Ratio of LT (output) to LT (input) is expressed as a ratio of polynomial in *s* in the transfer function.

o The Order of a system is given by the order of the differential equation governing the system

o Alternatively, order can be obtained from the transfer function

o In the transfer function, the maximum power of s in the denominator polynomial gives the order of the system.

o Order of the system is the order of the differential equation that governs the dynamic behaviour

o Working interpretation: Number of the dynamic elements / capacitances or holdup elements between a

o manipulated variable and a controlled variable

o Higher order system responses are usually very difficult to resolve from one another

o The response generally becomes sluggish as the order increases.

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