Chapter: Electric Energy Generation and Utilisation and Conservation : Illumination

Types of Lighting

One of the primary functions of a luminaries is to direct the light to where it is needed. The light distribution produced by luminaries is characterized by the Illuminating Engineering Society as follows:

Types of Lighting:


One of the primary functions of a luminaries is to direct the light to where it is needed. The light distribution produced by luminaries is characterized by the Illuminating Engineering Society as follows:


Indirect Lighting= 90 to 100 percent of the light is directed to the ceilings and upper walls and is reflected to all parts of a room.


Semi-Direct Lighting=60 to 90 percent of the light is directed downward with the remainder directed upward.


Semi-indirect Lighting=60 to 90 percent of the light is directed upward with the remainder directed downward.


Highlighting Lighting= the beam projection distance and focusing ability characterize this luminaire


Industrial Luminaries:


Coming to industrial areas if in the Interior-up to 6m Fluorescent Lamp with matt white reflector are employed. In High bays beyond 6m Discharge Lamps with Mirror Reflectors are employed. Luminaries in Hazardous Areas are specially designed. They are encapsulated in boxes made of steel or cast iron exterior housing to avoid any explosion, sturdy resisting pressure.


Categories of Explosive Areas:


In this respect explosives are as are categorized as

Zone 0 – Explosive all the time,


Zone 1 – Normally Explosive and

Zone 2 – Explosive Abnormally.


Here moisture & dust are taken care by Gasketted Luminnaires – Completely sealed eg: in a Shower or a Laundry. Emergency Lighting is required when normal lighting fails. Escape Lighting sufficient for evacuation typically 1 – 10 lx. Safety Lighting – 5% normal Lighting is provided in Potentially Hazardous areas. Standby power supply required for activation of vital implements. A permanent, separate, self supporting Power system which is reliable and mains rechargeable batteries in each Luminaries are provided


Non Permanent - Auto Switching - Emergency Generator - Battery Supply is also used.



Flood Lights:


Rain Proof Lamp holder with wide / narrow beam Reflectors are used for flood light. They are usually High wattage Incandescent Lamps, Halogen Lamps, High Pressure Mercury Vapor Lamp or Low / high Pressure Sodium Lamp.


Spot lights / down lights are usually used with Screens, Reflectors, Filters, Colored envelope and Closed Lamps.


Down lights are Spot lights when suspended.


As already brought out the components of an Illumination system are Lamp, the Radiation Source, Luminaire that directs and controls the light flux. Control Gear is the accessory that helps in controlling the requisite amount of flux on the work plane. Now we take a look at the accessories involved. First of these is Ballast. In a discharge lamp a series impedance to limit the current is required. If the current is allowed to increase there can be explosion of the lamp. This takes the form in a.c. as Inductance-w/o undue loss of power. This is called Ballast. It should have high power factor for economic use of the supply and should generate minimum harmonics. It should offer high impedance to audio frequencies. It should suppress-Electromagnetic interference (Radio interference-TV interference). It is essentially, a reactor of a wound coil on a magnetic core often called Choke and is in series with the lamp. Typical power factor is 0.5 Lag. Power factor is improved by having a capacitor connected across input lines.


Fig 1 shows the connection for a discharge lamp employing ballast formed by a reactor commonly known as choke. Fig 2 shows how the capacitor may be connected to improve the power factor. As may be seen the capacitor is placed in shunt. At times a lead circuit may result by placing a capacitor in series as shown in Fig 3. However, when a illumination system employing two lamps is used power factor may be improved by having one with a lead circuit and other with a lag circuit as shown in Fig. 4. Next important accessory is a starter that initiates the discharge in a discharge lamp. Starter is marked as ‘S’ in the Figs.1 to 4. Starter less circuit are shown in Fig 5. They employ pre-heated filament electrodes. The preheating obtained through a small portion of voltage tapped from the input source.


When discharge lamps are used on dc the ballast takes the form of a resistor together with associated power loss. These days they take the form of electronic ballast which converts dc to high frequency ac of around 20 kHZ.


Except high pressure mercury lamp where V > VS (starting) all lamps need a starting device. At times, it is integral part of a lamp. Switch start employs bimetallic strip that opens upon heating. Starterless, rapid start or instant starts are useful for outdoor applications. Other forms of starters employed are three electrode devices called igniters.


Glare Evaluation:


Visual comfort system is most common evaluation in the USA/Canada. This is expressed as percentage of people considering an installation comfortable as viewed from one end. Glare tables list various proportions and layout of room for glare free lighting. Figure of merit is based on a source of 1000 lm.from a luminaire. If VCP ≈ 70% then the system is said to be glare free. British method employs Zone of luminaire with a classification for quality of light expressed as Glare index. Luminance limit system is adopted in Australia. Standard code for Luminaire base lamp. dep. on room dimensions, mounting height and a Empirical shielding angle


Luminance curve system is employed in Europe.


Luminance limits for luminaires critical angles, γ are 45º < γ < 85º. Quality class is expressed from A to E type is based on Luminaire orientation.


Type 1.  Luminous sides when Luminous side plane> 30 mm

General light is predominantly light coming downwards. Typically reflectance of 0.5 for walls /ceiling and 0.25 for furniture. How is Glare evaluated?


1.        Determine luminance of the source between 45º - 85º

2.        Determine the quality class and illuminance required.

3.        Select the curve – class / level.

4.        Determine. Max. Angle to be considered from length & height and plane of eye level & plane of luminaires. (Refer to Fig 1)

5.        Horizontal limit based on” a / h”, part of the line (or curve) to be ignored.

6.        Compare luminance of one luminaire with selected part of the limiting curve.


Interior Lighting:


Interior Lighting is a complex problem depending on various factors such as


•     Purpose intended service,

      Class of Interiors.

      Luminaire best suited,

      Color effect and

      Reflection from ceiling, walls, floors.


Good Lighting means intensity should be ample to see clearly and distinctly. The light distribution should be nearly uniform over a part of the room at least. It should be diffused that is soft and well diffused. Color depends on purpose and taste source but should approach daylight / yellow. Source location should be well above range of vision. To avoid glare intrinsic brightness is reduced by diffused glass ware and by remaining objects of secular reflection from range of vision. Shadows are a must for accentuating depth but should not too apparent abruptly or dense, they are not to be harsh and should toned down.


Standard practice is to have general lighting in all areas at a level comfortable to eye. It should eliminate dark shadows and avoid sharp contrast. In order to emphasize on parts that should be shown. Light sources located such that visual importance of object is kept in mind. Lamp may be concealed or counter lighted with a very low attention value to itself. Glare minimized by diffusing.



American Institute of Architects Recommends for Good Illumination.


1.        General. Lighting – effectively illuminate all objects/areas with due regard to relative importance in the interior composition. Adequate for eye comfort throughout the room elimination of dark shadows and sharp contrasts – preserve soft shadows for roundness/relief – lighting emphasis on those parts that need first attention.


2.      Light sources be subordinated in visual importance to the things intended to illuminate, except rarely when itself is a dominant decorative element. Unless – concealed/counter lighted, that they are not apparent they have extremely high attention value – dominate the scheme. If visible – so disposed – to attract eye to major feature of room than themselves.


3.      Glare must be eliminated. Result of intense brightness in concentrated areas within the line of vision. Produced by excess brightness of visible light. reflection of bright lights from – Polished – low diffused surfaces - extreme contrast of light/shade Employ – means of diffusing – at source or finish the room - with Diffusing/Absorbing materials rather than reflecting material.


4.        Level of illumination to be adequate for the type of eye work. Local lighting to supplement general lighting adequate illumination – working at m/cs – desks – reading tables High level local lighting is always to be accompanied by general lighting to avoid eye strain and minimize controls. If glare is avoided there is no over illumination. Natural light limits are for outdoor 107600 lux and 1076 lux for indoor. Level should be adequate for eye task expected.


5.        General lighting is to be related and controlled to suit the mood. While worship, meditation, introspection need low levels. Gaiety, mental activity, physical activity or intense activity needs high levels. Theaters, homes and restaurants may need levels varied according to mood. Shops level should be appropriate to woo customers through psychological reaction. Offices, factories and schools adequate illumination to work w/o eye strain.



6.   Light source must suit interior in style, shape and finish in all architectural aspects.


Sports Lighting:


Lighting for sports facility looks for comfort of four user groups namely Players, Officials, Spectators and Media. Players and officials should see clearly in the play area to produce best possible results the object used in the game. Spectators should follow the performance of the players. In addition to play area surroundings also need to be illuminated. Lighting should be such that it enables safe entry and exit. With increasing crowd level safety becomes more and more important. Media include TV and film, for which lighting should provide lighting such that conditions are suitable for color picture quality as per CIE 83. This should be suitable for both general pictures as well as close up of players and spectators. Additionally, it should have provisions for emergency power supply to provide continuous transmission.


Criteria relevant for sports lighting are Horizontal Illuminance, Vertical Illuminance, Illuminance


Uniformity, Glare restrictions, Modeling & shadows and Color appearance & rendering

Energy efficiency lamps:

Horizontal Illuminance:


This becomes important as major part of view is illuminated playing area. Illuminance on the horizontal plane serves adaptation of the eye. It acts as a background, so adequate illuminance is important. For safe entry and exit adequate illumination is required in the circulation area also.


Vertical Illuminance:


Sufficient contrast across players’ body is essential for the identification of the player. This is possible only if sufficient vertical illumination is there. This is characterized by both magnitude and direction. Players need adequate vertical illumination, from all directions. Spectators and Media need illumination only in defined directions. Generally, if horizontal illuminance is taken care, vertical illuminance levels become adequate. Usually vertical illuminance is specified or measured at a vertical height 1.5 m above the play area. Apart from player recognition and picture quality vertical illuminance should enable observation of movement of ball (or object moving in the sport concerned) above the playing field by both players and spectators. Spectator’s stands are also part of the environment and must also have adequate vertical illuminance, more from the safety point of view.



Illuminance Uniformity:


Good illuminance is important in both the horizontal and vertical planes. If it be good it does away need for continuous adjustment of cameras. This is achieved by having Illuminance Uniformity.

Road Lighting:


Conventionally by they are arranged in a column, mounted on a wall or suspended by a span wire. Plane of Symmetry being in vertical plane perpendicular to the axis of the road along the road. Catenary – suspended from a catenary cable parallel to the axis of road. Plane of symmetry parallel to the axis of road. They employ Corrosion Resistant sturdy materials and are usually closed.

Road lighting provides visual conditions for safe, quick and comfortable movement of Road users.


The factors responsible for the lighting scheme for roads are:

i.          Luminance Level.

ii.        Luminance Uniformity.

iii.     Degree of Glare limitation.

iv.     Lamp Spectra and

v.        Effectiveness of visual guidance.


Luminance Level:


As the Luminance of a road influences contrast sensitivity of drivers’ eyes and contrast of obstacles, relative to back ground. Hence affects performance of Road users. Surrounding brightness affects the adaptation of human eye. Bright surroundings lower contrast sensitivity there by requiring higher luminance for the road surface. Darker surroundings make driver adapted to road (assuming road is brighter). Roads with dark surrounds are to be lit by including surroundings. Otherwise drivers cannot perceive objects in the surroundings. CIE 12 recommends that 5m away from the road on either side should be lit by illuminance level at least 50% of that on the road.


Luminance Uniformity:


Adequate uniformity is necessary for visual performance and visual comfort of the user. From visual performance view point, uniformity ratio is defined by U0 = Lmin / Lavg .U0 should not be below 0.4.From visual comfort view point uniformity ratio is defined as U1 = Lmin / Lmax measured along the line passing through the observer positioned in the middle of the traffic facing the traffic flow. Termed longitudinal uniformity ratio.


Glare Limitation:


Physiological or disability glare affect visual performance. Psychological or discomfort glare affect visual comfort. Glare is to be avoided at all costs.


Lamp Spectra


Spectral composition determines color appearance of the lamp. The way lamp is going to render color to objects Low pressure sodium vapour lamps give greater visual acuity. Spectrum should be such; there is Great speed of perception, less discomfort glare and shorter recovery time after glare.


Visual Guidance:


Visual guidance guides the road user and hence must for user to get a recognizable picture of the course immediately. This is improved by lamp arrangement that follows the run of the road. More so if turns and intersections are there. Lighting scheme must provide visual guidance. On roads having separate lanes with a separator the lighting columns are located on the separator. As is the custom in large avenues in Metros. On a curve the lighting column is located along the outer column. This gives a clear indication of the run of the road on the curvature. Visual guidance pilots traffic through lights of different colors on different routes.

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