Home | | Textiles and Dress Designing 12th Std | Traditional Embroidery

Textiles and Dress Designing - Traditional Embroidery | 12th Textiles and Dress Designing : Fashion Accessory and Ornamentation - Belts, Bows, Smocking and Traditional Embroidery

Chapter: 12th Textiles and Dress Designing : Fashion Accessory and Ornamentation - Belts, Bows, Smocking and Traditional Embroidery

Traditional Embroidery

Embroidery is one of the many great methods of applied decoration.

Traditional Embroidery

Embroidery is one of the many great methods of applied decoration. But it requires good skill, time and artistic ability. Embroidery may be made by hand or machine. Traditional Embroidery vary from region to region and are explained as follows;

 

1. Chikankari Embroidery

Region

Chikankari is whitework embroidery practiced in Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh. It is believed that Nur Jahan, wife of Mughal emperor Jahangir embroidered a cap for her husband, and hence familiarized this craft of white on white embroidery.

Technique

The embroidery is done on fine white cotton fabric with untwisted white cotton or silk thread. There are three types of stitches used in chikankari :

·               flat stitches are made with stem stitch

·               herringbone stitch is used for raised stitches like bullion and french knots

·               pulled thread work or jali work is done

Motifs

The motifs are inspired by nature’s flora including flowers, foliages, creepers, flowering stems, mango, almond, peacock, parrot etc.

Style of Embroidery

A common style present in each piece of Chikankari is the shadow work. To create a shaded effect, herringbone stitch is worked from the wrong side of the fabric. This creates a shadow of lighter colour on the right side. It imparts an outline to the motif on the right side. If worked from the right side of the fabric, double back stitch is used.

End Use

Traditionally the embroidery was done largely for male garments such as kurta, bandi, choga etc. for summer wear. Currently, Chikankari is being used for apparel as well as home products. Embroidery is done on different fabrics like crepe silks, chiffons, georgettes, and cotton-polyester blends. Traditionally white on white embroidery on white fabric was common. Modern chikankari has a wider colour palette, from pastels to bright colours.


 

2. Chambarumal Embroidery

Region

Chambarumal, is originated from Himachal Pradesh. It dates back to 15th century. There is a mention of this embroidery being practiced in Pathankot, Chamba and other remote villages of Himachal Pradesh in Buddhist literature and the Jataka Tales. Chamba was known for the most charming needlework, which the Romans described as ‘needle painting’.

Technique

The embroidery is executed on two types of unbleached cotton cloth: lightweight, delicate muslin or hand spun, hand-woven, coarser khaddar. Untwisted dyed silk threads in bright colours like red, yellow, green, blue, crimson and purple are used for the embroidery. The embroidery uses double satin stitch which simultaneously fills in the motif on both sides of the fabric. The embroidered fabric is reversible

Motifs

The motifs used are inspired by Pahari paintings depicting Lord Krishna and his playful antics. The embroidery also depicts the flora and fauna of the Himalayan region. Typical motifs include tiger, goat, deer, horse, peacock, parrot, flowers, shrubs and plants, willow and cypress trees; and musical instruments like sitar, tabla, veena, tampura etc.

Style of Embroidery

The embroidery is executed on a square piece of cloth. The motifs are arranged on the rumal in order to portray scenes from Lord Krishna’s life. Some of the popular themes include Rasamandala, Rukmini Haran and Kaliyadaman. There are floral borders on all four sides of the rumal.


End Use

Traditionally the rumal was used as a case for food prasad offered to Gods and Goddesses. It was also a tradition to gift embroidered rumals at the time of weddings. Nowadays, the Chamba embroidery is made on fabrics like silk, polyester or terrycot and made into blouses, caps, slippers, cushions covers etc. Embroidered silk wall hangings are also exported from Himachal Pradesh.

 

3. Kantha Embroidery

Region

Kantha is an embroidery technique that originated in West Bengal. In the past, it was used to convert old used fabric into an embroidered textile.

Technique

The embroidery is executed on layers of old white cotton saris. Layers of cotton saris are stitched together with simple running stitch in white thread. The motifs are traced and embroidered using different coloured threads also. The embroidery threads used are drawn from the old sari borders. The basic stitch used is running stitch along with satin stitch and chain stitch

Motifs

The motifs used in Kantha are lotus flowers, floral scrolls, tree of life, mandala, foliages, creepers, animal and bird forms; fish, sunrise, mermaids, ships, submarine scenes; domestic articles like mirrors, pitcher, nutcracker, umbrella, musical instruments and human figures like gods and goddesses, horseman, fisherwoman etc. The designs of folk stories, epics, mythological background, ritualistic motifs, animals, dancing peacock, temples, are also different types of costumes.

Lotus is the most common and important motif widely used in kantha . ‘kalka’ is another important motif a cone mango shaped.

Style of Embroidery

Different embroidery layouts are followed in Kantha. Some examples are; central motif and tree of life on all four corners, arrangement of motifs in panels or a big central panel and placement of smaller motifs all over the textiles


End Use

Kanthas were largely used as quilts. It is offered to special guests to sit or sleep on it. It was conferred to the bride and groom. It is also used to wrap valuables and gifts. Other uses of Kantha are bags which are used for keeping money and also used as book cover. Nowadays, Kantha embroidery is done on a single layer of white or coloured fabric base using contemporary motifs. Other products made with Kantha embroidery are stoles, dupattas, saris, and suit materials.

 

4. Kathi Embroidery

Region

Kathi Embroidery, Kathibharat or Kathipa style of embroidery is practiced by the Kathi community tribal women of Gujarat. Black colour fabric is used as the base fabric. Stitched Kathipa style of embroidery is otherwise known as ‘heer’.

Technique

Repeating patterns of six to eight-pointed stars, triangles and squares are arranged to form a beautiful design. Outlining is done with darning stitches and the fillings are covered with herringbone stitches. Mirrors are attached with buttonhole stitches to form squares and triangles.

Motifs

Motifs such as humans, animals and birds along with landscape forms are used in this embroidery. Bold motifs with mirrors create a colourful depiction in dark blue, orange, purple, indigo, black, deep red with little tints of yellow and green.

Style of Embroidery

Embossed designs are done all over the fabric. Geometric patterns are created between borders constructing chequered forms. Long stitches along with herringbone stitches and contrasting colours define the design vocabulary of Kathibharat. Small mirrors are stitched to add beauty to the embroidery. The stitches in triangles run in parallel to the warp and weft creating an interesting effect. Single colour silk floss with light and dark shades is often used.

End Use

The traditional attire of Kathi women become an intrinsic part of costumes worn by both rural and urban women during Navratri. Besides the garments, Kathipabharat is also used in creating a range of home adorning textiles like chaklas, torans or textile door frames, cushion covers and mats.


 

5. Kasuti Embroidery

Region

Kasuti embroidery is practiced in Karnataka. This is a promising craft produced by women. In early times, every bride would own a silk sari with Kasuti embroidery done on it.

Technique

The embroidery is done on a hand-woven cloth of darker colours. Cotton threads in different colours like red, orange, purple, green, yellow and blue are used. The embroidery threads used are drawn from the old silk sari borders.

Four Basic Stitches used are;

·               Gavanti - double running stitch that creates the same effect on both sides of fabric

·               Murgi - zigzag running stitch that works in a stepwise manner

·               Negi - simple running stitch that produces a weave-like effect, and

·               Menthi - cross stitch that gives a heavier appearance.

Motifs

The motifs are inspired by religion, architecture, flora and fauna, and objects of daily use. Some examples are star-shaped designs, chariot, and palanquin for deity, tulsi pot holder, cradle, sacred bull, deer, elephant, peacock, horse, and lotus

Style of Embroidery

The embroidery uses a combination of horizontal, vertical and diagonal stitches. The motifs are not traced on the fabric and the embroidery is done by counting the yarns on the base material.

End Use

Traditionally the embroidery was made on Ikhat sari and other apparel items like women’s blouse and children’s bonnets. Presently Kasuti embroidery is also made on home products like cushion covers, bedcovers, curtains and accessories like handbags, mobile pouches, belts etc.


 

6. Kashmiri Embroidery (Kashida )

Region

Kashida is embroidery originated from Kashmir. It is practiced by menfolk of the region. The elaborate needlework is inspired by the charming natural surroundings of Kashmir.

Technique

The base material for Kashida is cotton. Wool or silk fabric in a variety of colours like white, blue, yellow, purple, red, green and black are also used. The embroidery threads used are wool, silk or cotton depending on the product to be embroidered. The main stitches employed for Kashida are darning stitch, stem stitch, satin stitch and chain stitch.

Motifs

The motifs used in Kashida depict the natural elements which include the rich flora and fauna of the region of Kashmir. Typical motifs are birds, flowers, butterflies, maple leaves, almonds, cherries, grapes and plums. A popular motif seen on embroidered shawl is the cypress cone.

Style of Embroidery

There are three styles of embroidery followed in Kashmir; (i) Sozni is intricate embroidery that uses stitches like a fly stitch, stem stitch and darning stitch.

aari style, also called Zalakdozi employs hook or aari to fill-in motifs with chain stitch. (iii) Kashmiri couching, zarithread is laid on the fabric along a pattern and is held in place with another thread

End Use

Kashmiri embroidery is primarily done on shawls and regional garments like Phiran. Chain stitch embroidery is made on woollen floor rugs called Gabbas and Namdas. Nowadays, Kashida is also used to enhance household items like bed covers, cushion covers, lampshades, bags and other accessories.


 

7. Phulkari

Region

Phulkari is an embroidery style that is originated in Punjab. The earliest possible article of phulkari embroidery is a rumal embroidered during15th century by Bibi Nanaki, sister of guru Nanak dev. The needlework is widely practiced by the women of Punjab. It carries significance in the life of a woman, from her marriage until her final abode to heaven.

Technique

The base material to execute Phulkari is handspun and handwoven Khaddar that is dyed in red, rust, brown, blue and darker shades. Soft untwisted silk thread ‘Pat’ is used for the embroidery. The colours of the thread are red, green, golden yellow, orange, blue etc. The basic stitch employed for Phulkari is a darning stitch, which is done from the wrong side of the fabric. The stitches follow the weave and a beautiful effect is created on the fabric by changing the direction of the stitches. For outlining of motifs and borders, stem, chain and herringbone stitches are used.

Motifs

The motifs used in Phulkari are inspired by objects of everyday use like rolling pin, sword, flowers, vegetables, birds, animals etc. They are generally geometrical and stylized. Usually, one motif is left unembroidered or is embroidered. This motif is called ‘nazarbuti’ which is considered to ward off the evil eye.

Style of Embroidery

The two embroidery styles prevalent in Punjab are Bagh and Phulkari. Bagh is a fully embroidered wrap that is used for special occasions whereas Phulkari is simple and lightly embroidered for everyday use

End Use

Phulkari is an essential part of the bridal clothes and is worn as a veil or wrap by women on special occasions. A specific pattern of Phulkari is also used as the canopy on religious occasions. Presently, Phulkari is being done on bed linen and apparel like tops, tunics, and skirts.


 

8. Dori Work

Region

Dori embroidery is basically a cord or a strong thread. This work is stated to be the Cro Magnon Era.

Technique

It is used to fill up the petals of a flower or leaves. The applique is fixed with chain stitch or Dori work to give it a dimensional effect. It is the tasselled or frilled border for decoration.

Motifs

It can be crafted in a floral pattern radiated all over the attire or having double work border. It is a unique decorative lace, which is frequently available with fine silver, metallic and golden lines.

Style of Work

This art is related to applique embroidery. Woven fabric either gold or silver is fixed onto the other fabric to create different surface textures. Various colours of cords are used for the embellishment of the fabric. Couching stitches and some stitches of zardozi are used. Matching colours of the cord can be used to make couching of the cord invisible.It is usually combined with sequins and pearls to form a mesmerizing effect.


End Use

Lehanga, salwar kameez, kurtis, bags, purses, shoes, blankets, caps, and blouses are worked with cords. This art work gives a rich look to the garments.

 

9. Gota Work

Region

Gota work was patronized by the Mughals. This work was spread to the courts of Jaipur and Jodhpur. The embroiderers of Jaipur, Bikaner, Ajmer, Udaipur and Kota are world famous for their uniquely styled gota work. Gota Patti work is also known as Aaritari or zardozi. Moghals and Rajputs royals used to wear the clothes worked with Gota Patti.

Technique

Gota work is done with a strip of gold or silver ribbon. Kasab or ribbon is drawn under a calendar to give it a flattened effect called as “Badla”. For custom made garments, the base metal used is copper coated by silver etc. The Gota Patti ribbon is cut, folded and patched over fabric The other materials used are dory, beads, sequins, stones etc. The base fabrics used for Gota Patti work are lightweight chiffon, georgette, satin solid dyed or printed fabrics. Awe or Aari needle is used for this method.

Motifs

The design and motifs are inspired by nature like birds (peacock, parrot, sparrow), human figure (BaniThani), animals (elephant, horse). The modern design like paisley, geometrical, palanquin, checker board are also in fashion. These motifs are structured into buta, butties and cut into different shapes likes flower pot (Gamla), Keri (Mango) and champak flower, and stitched with the base fabrics by chain stitch or by hemming.

Style of Work

Badla was prepared by mixing 100 grams of silver and 10 grams of gold. The mixture is hammered into thin sheets and cut into very fine strips. In recent years pure yarns are replaced by synthetic yarns. The colours commonly used are red, orange, pink, magenta, maroon and yellow which are nowadays available in all possible shades as per the customer demand.

End Use

Edging of sarees, dupattas, ghagras, lehangha cholis, kurtas, bed spreads, cushion covers, clutches, shoes, rugs, upholstery, anarkali suits, bags, stoles and scarfs.


 

10. Thread Work

Region

History of thread work dates back to Cro-Magnon days or 30,000 BC. During archaeological findings heavy worked clothing’s were found. Chinese thread embroidery work dates back to 3500 B.C. For thread work, natural yarns and fabrics have been used since time immemorial.

Technique

Thread embroidery is the decoration of a wide variety of materials and thread, for example; cotton, silk, wool, gold and silver wires. The work can be done on a frame or in the hand. There are various kinds of stitches used are such as chain, satin, long and short, French Knot, interlacing, herringbone, running, stem and back stitch etc.

Motifs

Naturalistic, geometric, abstract, historical and conventional motifs are extensively used.

Style of Work

There are two varieties of thread work embroidery namely surface embroidery and counted thread embroidery. In surface embroidery, the pattern is formed using decorative stitches. Thread is laid on top of the foundation fabric rather than through the fabric. In counted thread embroidery, the fabric threads are counted and then the needle is inserted into the fabric.

End Use

Textile materials and garments, various garments such as kurtis, salwar kameez, skirts, blouses, skirts are worked with thread embroidery.




Tags : Textiles and Dress Designing , 12th Textiles and Dress Designing : Fashion Accessory and Ornamentation - Belts, Bows, Smocking and Traditional Embroidery
Study Material, Lecturing Notes, Assignment, Reference, Wiki description explanation, brief detail
12th Textiles and Dress Designing : Fashion Accessory and Ornamentation - Belts, Bows, Smocking and Traditional Embroidery : Traditional Embroidery | Textiles and Dress Designing


Privacy Policy, Terms and Conditions, DMCA Policy and Compliant

Copyright © 2018-2023 BrainKart.com; All Rights Reserved. Developed by Therithal info, Chennai.