tools and weapons were used by humans in the past. To start with, humans were
not aware of any weapons or metals. They took several years to invent them. Our
lives today are their gifts. In this period humans were not aware of scripts.
The stone age is the period in which Stones were used as weapons.
of Human Evolution
humans lived in jungles along with animals. They used the stone tools to
protect themselves, drive away animals, dig out roots, shoots etc. The most
important thing is that they ate everything raw including flesh. They did not
know the use of fire in the beginning. At first, dog was their good companion.
Wild animals ran away when dogs barked. Humans tamed dog as their pet at first.
They took it wherever they went. Later they started rearing cattle as they did
not harm them and were very useful to them. They observed some grains growing
along the river side. They ate them and found it very tasty. They observed that
the scattered grains were only eaten up by birds. They were keen observers.
Early man found that the grains grow with the help of sunshine and rainfall.
Thus, they learnt the art of cultivation.
noticed forest fire. At first they were afraid of fire. They found some animals
dead due to fire. They ate the flesh of the burnt animals. It tasted good. They
also observed that the spark came out by scratching two stones together. Since
then, they ate cooked food.
Do You Know?
Museum is a place where objects which are rare and used by our
ancestors are preserved. These give information about the lives of people.
Therefore it is important to preserve the remains of the past. Remains are the
objects or things used by the people of the past which got buried under the
Early man used Quartzite, a type of stone for making tools and weapons.
A type of stone called flint stone was used to produce fire.
humans did not know to grow crops. They wandered in all the landscapes in
search of food. They ate whatever they got and drank water from natural
sources. This kind of life was called nomadic
life. They wore leaves, skins of animals, barks of trees to cover their
body. They lived in caves and holes of big trees.
Stones were sharpened as tools by them. They
made it with the help of other stones. These sharp tools helped to hunt animals and tear
the flesh of animals.
They used bones, horns, stones, skin, branches
of trees and sticks as their tools and weapons. This stage of development in
history was called New stone age or Neolithic age.
• What was the food
eaten by early humans?
• roots • shoots • flesh • foodgrains
• Why did early
humans live in the caves?
The early humans led a nomadic life. They did not know how to
build houses. So they lived in caves.
•Why did they eat raw
In the beginning, the early humans did not know the use of fire.
They did not know cooking. So they ate raw flesh.
They used clothes, torches, tools and weapons.
The purpose of using them are given below:
drew paintings of what they saw around them on the walls of the caves where
they lived. Distinguish between
When the stones rolled down the mountains they
acquired round shape. Humans observed them and thus wheel was invented. In the
beginning it was made of stone and later by wood. This was the first scientic
Pottery was also one of
the greatest inventions by humans. The baked pot
was strong and looked beautiful.Stone Age people made all the household
artifacts (articles made by humans) by themselves.
Stone houses were built. The roofs of these
houses were thatched with sticks and husks. After this several inventions were
made, humans started living in a settled life.
The period which has written
documents are called historical period.These documents help us to know about
the life styles of the people, events, food habits, culture, art, architecture,
Agriculture was an important activity in the
history of humans. They started cultivating crops. They sowed seeds and
harvested crops. They found it convenient to live along the river as crops grew
well near the river.
Burial pots called urns have been excarated in
which the dead bodies were placed and buried under the ground.
20 lakhs years ago man walked
straight. Around 3 lakhs years ago he spread all over the earth. He
cultivated around 8000 years ago. Since then civilisations started around
in man’s life →
→ family → society → group → administration
At the end of new Stone Age copper was invented.
In this age both stone and copper were used. This period was called Chalcolithic
Age. Bronze was produced when copper, zinc and tin were mixed together. The
period when people made tools from an alloy called bronze was called Bronze
Tell the names of
some iron tools found at your home.
• Sickle, Spade, Crow bar, Hoe,
Pickaxe, Axe, Saw, Knife, Hammer.
After this, humans found iron and started using
iron tools and weapons. This age was called Iron Age. In this age household
articles, agricultural tools etc. were made of iron. Metals were alloyed and
tools were made.
You can collect – coins, potsherds, metal
objects etc. Most of these objects are dug out from the ground. Such objects
are preserved in the museum. In Tamilnadu, Athichanallur, Arikkamedu and
Keeladi are the sites where the objects used by the people of the past are
excavated. Still research is going on in these sites.
Find the age of
If you come across any old, traditional objects of historical
value try to collect and save them.
Study of coins is called Numismatics. All types of coins right
from metals to paper help to learn about the kings, and economic conditions of
Scripts inscribed about a king’s rule, people or society on rocks
and walls are called inscriptions, usually they are found on temple walls.
All the evidences or traces like, artifacts, pots, coins, idols,
ornaments, weapons written documents etc, are valuable sources to construct