The Middle Ages
Historians call the period between the end of the Roman Empire in 476 A.D. (C.E.) and the capture of Constantinople by the Turks in 1453 A.D. (C.E.) as the Middle Ages. The Middle Ages has been further classified as early, central or high and later. In the early Middle Ages (approximately fifth to tenth century), Christianity, followed by Islam, began to establish themselves as dominant religions of continental Europe. The central or high Middle Ages witnessed rapid development, marked by territorial expansion, demographic and urban growth, and the restructuring of secular and ecclesiastical institutions. The later Middle Ages was represented by the feudal system. This was followed by a period of decline and decay.
After centuries of disunity China was reunited in 589 A.D. (C.E.) by the Sui dynasty. The history of Arab civilization that began a little later than the history of Byzantium covers a period roughly from 630 A.D. (C.E.) to 1300. Known as Sara-cenic civilization it was the centre of a new religion and its impact on Christian Europe was responsible for revolutionary social and intellectual changes. This new religion united the people and urged them to work in a common cause. Some of the Saracens were Jews, some were Persians, some were Syrians. Nevertheless, the founders of the civilization were Arabs.
Seljuq Turks were a tribe of Tartars from Central Asia. They established a powerful empire in Persia. Their reign was one of great progress in literature, art and architecture. Similarly the Ottoman Turks who moved Anatolia (Asia Minor) and established an independent empire contributed to science and technology in a big way.