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Chapter: 11th Biochemistry : Vitamins

Summary for Vitamins

Vitamins are low molecular weight organic compounds that are essential for many functions of living organisms.

SUMMARY


Vitamins are low molecular weight organic compounds that are essential for many functions of living organisms. They can be classified as water soluble and fat-soluble vitamins based on their solubility. The fat-soluble vitamins that include A, D, E and K gets readily dissolved in fat and are insoluble in water. These vitamins are present in liver and fatty tissues and the excess can be stored in human body. The water-soluble vitamins include C and B complex vitamins (B1, B2, B3, B6, B12, Biotin, Folic acid and Pantothenic acid).

 

Vitamin A (Retinol) plays an essential role in the visual cycle. Its deficiency causes keratomalacia. Green leaves, meat and carrots are good sources for this vitamin.

 

Vitamin D which exists in two forms D2 and D3 is essential for absorption of calcium and phosphorous and for normal growth. Its deficiency causes rickets in children and osteomalacia in adults. Fish liver oil is rich in vitamin D.

 

Vitamin E is an antioxidant and its deficiency cause reproductive failure and muscular dystrophy. Groundnut oil and wheat germ oil are good sources of this vitamin.

 

Vitamin K is essential for the biosynthesis of prothrombin a necessary substance for blood clotting. Its deficiency causes hemorrhagic condition. Green vegetables, soybean oil and spinach are good sources for vitamin K

 

The B-complex vitamins work together and are essential for overall growth of organism. It helps in harvesting energy from carbohydrates, fat and protein and some other important functions.

 

Vitamin C is involved in cellular oxidation-reduction reactions as a hydrogen carrier. Its deficiency causes scurvy syndrome. Citrus fruits like lemon and orange are rich in vitamin C.

 

The B-complex vitamins work together and are essential for overall growth of organism. It helps in harvesting energy from carbohydrates, fat and protein and some other important functions.

 

Vitamin C is involved in cellular oxidation-reduction reactions as a hydrogen carrier. Its deficiency causes scurvy syndrome. Citrus fruits like lemon and orange are rich in vitamin C.

 

Vitamin D which exists in two forms D2 and D3 is essential absorption of calcium and phosphorous and for normal growth. Its deficiency causes rickets in children and osteomalacia in adults. Fish liver oil is rich in vitamin D.

 

Vitamin E is an antioxidant and its deficiency cause reproductive failure and muscular dystrophy. Groundnut oil and wheat germ oil are good sources of this vitamin.

 

Vitamin K is essential for the biosynthesis of prothrombin a necessary substance for blood clotting. Its deficiency causes hemorrhagic condition. Green vegetables, soybean oil and spinach are good sources for vitamin K.


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