Between 1000-700 BCE iron played a significant role in extending the area of cultivation.
Agricultural surplus, growth of crafts, trade and the growing population led to the emergence of towns and exchange centres in the Gangetic plains.
The Mahajanapadas are classified as gana-sangas and chiefdoms based on the nature of their polity.
According to Ajivikas, gain and loss, joy and sorrow and life and death were the six inevitable factors of life.
Mahavira’s three principles and Buddha’s eight fold path created a new intellectual awakening in India during the sixth century BCE.
Influence of Jainism and Buddhism spread to Tamilnadu from about the third century BCE.