Substance Abuse: Cannabis-related Disorders
As with other substances of abuse, the Diagnostic and Statisti-cal Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV-TR) distinguishes a number of different cannabis-related diagnoses, which are shown in Table 37.1. These fall into two basic groups. The first group is defined by adverse effects resulting from can-nabis use; these include cannabis abuse and cannabis depend-ence. The category of cannabis dependence includes a number of specifers that indicate the presence or absence of physiological dependence, type of remission, and whether or not the individual has been in a controlled environment. The second set of cannabis-related disorders in DSM-IV-TR includes psychiatric syndromes presumed to be induced by cannabis. This group includes: can-nabis intoxication, which is almost certainly induced by cannabis and consists of the common signs and symptoms that normally follow cannabis use; cannabis intoxication delirium, a degree of disturbance beyond that normally expected with ordinary intoxi-cation; cannabis-induced psychotic disorder which is subdivided into categories of psychosis with delusions and psychosis with hallucinations; and cannabis-induced anxiety disorder which is also subdivided into several types as shown in Table 37.1.