As stated above, the voltage applied across the string of suspension insulators is not uniformly distributed across various units or discs. The disc nearest to the conductor has much higher potential than the other discs. This unequal potential distribution is undesirable and is usually expressed in terms of string efficiency.
The ratio of voltage across the whole string to the product of number of discs and the voltage across the disc nearest to the conductor is known as string efficiency i.e.,
String efficiency is an important consideration since it decides the potential distribution along the string. The greater the string efficiency, the more uniform is the voltage distribution. Thus 100% string efficiency is an ideal case for which the voltage across each disc will be exactly the same. Although it is impossible to achieve 100% string efficiency, yet efforts should be made to improve it as close to this value as possible.
The Following Points May Be Noted From The Above Mathematical Analysis
(i) If K = 0·2 (Say), then from exp. (iv), we get, V2 = 1·2 V1 and V3 = 1·64 V1. This clearly shows that disc nearest to the conductor has maximum voltage across it; the voltage across other discs decreasing progressively as the cross-arm in approached.
(ii) The greater the value of K (= C1/C), the more non-uniform is the potential across the discs and lesser is the string efficiency.
(iii) The inequality in voltage distribution increases with the increase of number of discs in the string. Therefore, shorter string has more efficiency than the larger one