Sources of Sewage
Sanitary sewage is produced from the following sources:
1. When the water is supplied by water works authorities or provided from private sources, it is used for various purposes like bathing, utensil cleaning, for flushing water closets and urinals or washing clothes or any other domestic use. The spent water for all the above needs forms the sewage.
2. Industries use the water for manufacturing various products and thus develop the sewage.
3. Water supplied to schools, cinemas, hotels, railway stations, etc., when gets used develops sewage.
4. Ground water infiltration into sewers through loose joints.
5. Unauthorized entrance of rain water in sewer lines.
1 Nature of Sewage:-
Sewage is a dilute mixture of the various types of wastes from the residential, public and industrial places. The characteristics and composition i.e. The nature of sewage mainly depends on this source. Sewage contains organic and inorganic matters which may be dissolved, suspension and colloidal state. Sewage also contains various types of bacteria, Virus, protozoa, etc. sewage may also contain toxic or other similar materials which might have got entry from industrial discharges. Before the design of any sewage treatment plant the knowledge of the nature of sewage is essential.
2 Quantity of Sanitary Sewage and Storm Water:-
The determination of sanitary sewage is necessary because of the following factors which depend on this:
1. To design the sewerage schemes as well as to dispose a treated sewage efficiently.
2. The size, shape and depth of sewers depend on quantity of sewage.
3. The size of pumping unit depends on the quantity of sewage.
3 Estimate of Sanitary Sewage:-
Sanitary sewage is mostly the spent water of the community into sewer system with some groundwater and a fraction of the storm runoff from the area, draining into it. Before designing the sewerage system, it is essential to know the quantity of sewage that will flow through the sewer.
The sewage may be classified under two heads:
1. The sanitary sewage, and
2. Storm water
Sanitary sewage is also called as the Dry Weather Flow (D.W.F), which includes the domestic sewage obtained from residential and residential and industrials etc., and the industrial
sewage or trade waste coming from manufacturing units and other concerns.
4 Quantity of Sewage:-
It is usual to assume that the rate of sewage flow, including a moderate allowance for infiltration equals to average rate of water consumption which is 135 litre/ head /day according to Indian Standards. It varies widely depending on size of the town etc. this quantity is known as Dry Weather Flow (D.W.F). It is the quantity of water that flows through sewer in dry weather when no storm water is in the sewer.
Rate of flow varies throughout 24 hours and is usually the greatest in the fore-noon and very small from midnight to early morning. For determining the size of sewer, the maximum flow should be taken as three times the D.W.F.
Design Discharge of Sanitary Sewage
The total quantity of sewage generated per day is estimated as product of forecasted population at the end of design period considering per capita sewage generation and appropriate peak factor. The per capita sewage generation can be considered as 75 to 80% of the per capita water supplied per day. The increase in population also result in increase in per capita water demand and hence, per capita production of sewage. This increase in water demand occurs due to increase in living standards, betterment in economical condition, changes in habit of people,and enhanced demand for public utilities.
Factors affecting the quantity of sewage flow:-
The quantity of sanitary sewage is mainly affected by the following factors:
2. Type of area
3. Rate of water supply
4. Infiltration and exfiltration
In addition to above, it may also be affected by habits of people, number of industries and water pressure etc.
The quantity of sanitary sewage directly depends on the population. As the population increases the quantity of sanitary sewage also increases. The quantity of water supply is equal to the rate of water supply multiplied by the population. There are several methods used for forecasting the population of a community.
The quantity of sanitary sewage also depends on the type of area as residential, industrial or commercial. The quantity of sewage developed from residential areas depend on the rate of water supply to that area, which is expressed a litres/ capita/ day and this quantity is obtained by multiplying the population with this factor.
The quantity of sewage produced by various industries depends on their various industrial processes, which is different for each industry.
Similarly the quantity of sewage obtained from commercial and public places can be determined by studying the development of other such places.