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Chapter: Business Science - International Business Management - Conflict Management and Ethics in International Business Management

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Sources and types of conflict

Communication failure, Personality conflict, Value differences, Goal differences, Substandard performance, Lack of cooperation, Differences regarding authority, Differences regarding responsibility

SOURCES OF CONFLICT:

 

            Communication failure

            Personality conflict

            Value differences

            Goal differences

            Methodological differences

            Substandard performance

            Lack of cooperation

            Differences regarding authority

            Differences regarding responsibility

 

 

Competition over resources

Non-compliance with rules

 

Ways of addressing conflict

 

           Accommodating: Individuals who enjoy solving the other party‘s problems and preserving personal relationships. Accommodators are sensitive to the emotional states,

 

body language, and verbal signals of the other parties. They can, however, feel taken advantage of in situations when the other party places little emphasis on the relationship.

 

Individuals who enjoy solving the other party‘s problems and preserving personal relationships. Accommodators are sensitive to the emotional states, body language, and verbal signals of the other parties. They can, however, feel taken advantage of in situations when the other party places little emphasis on the relationship

 

           Avoiding: Individuals who do not like to negotiate and don‘t do it unless warranted. When negotiating, avoiders tend to defer and dodge the confrontational aspects of

 

negotiating; however, they may be perceived as tactful and diplomatic.

 

Individuals who do not like to negotiate and don‘t do it unless warranted. When negotiating, avoiders tend to defer and dodge the confrontational aspects of negotiating; however, they may be perceived as tactful and diplomatic.

 

           Collaborating: Individuals who enjoy negotiations that involve solving tough problems in creative ways. Collaborators are good at using negotiations to understand the concerns

 

and interests of the other parties. They can, however, create problems by transforming simple situations into more complex ones.

 

Individuals who enjoy negotiations that involve solving tough problems in creative ways. Collaborators are good at using negotiations to understand the concerns and interests of the other parties. They can, however, create problems by transforming simple situations into more complex ones

 

           Competing: Individuals who enjoy negotiations because they present an opportunity to win something. Competitive negotiators have strong instincts for all aspects of negotiating and are often strategic. Because their style can dominate the bargaining process, competitive negotiators often neglect the importance of relationships.

 

Individuals who enjoy negotiations because they present an opportunity to win something. Competitive negotiators have strong instincts for all aspects of negotiating and are often strategic. Because their style can dominate the bargaining process, competitive negotiators often neglect the importance of relationships

 

           Compromising: Individuals who are eager to close the deal by doing what is fair and equal for all parties involved in the negotiation. Compromisers can be useful when there

 

is limited time to complete the deal; however, compromisers often unnecessarily rush the negotiation process and make concessions too quickly.

 

Individuals who are eager to close the deal by doing what is fair and equal for all parties involved in the negotiation. Compromisers can be useful when there is limited time to complete the deal; however, compromisers often unnecessarily rush the negotiation process and make concessions too quickly.

 

Other Negotiation Styles

 

Shell identified five styles/responses to negotiation. Individuals can often have strong dispositions towards numerous styles; the style used during a negotiation depends on the context and the interests of the other party, among other factors. In addition, styles can change over time.

 

Counseling

 

When personal conflict leads to frustration and loss of efficiency, counseling may prove to be a helpful antidote. Although few organizations can afford the luxury of having professional counselors on the staff, given some training, managers may be able to perform this function. Nondirective counseling, or "listening with understanding", is little more than being a good listener—something every manager should be.

 

Conflict Resolution

 

Conflict resolution is a range of methods for alleviating or eliminating sources of conflict. The term "conflict resolution" is sometimes used interchangeably with the term dispute resolution or alternative dispute resolution. Processes of conflict resolution generally include negotiation, mediation, and diplomacy. The processes of arbitration, litigation, and formal complaint processes such as ombudsman processes, are usually described with the term dispute resolution, although some refer to them as "conflict resolution." Processes of mediation and arbitration are often referred to as alternative dispute resolution.

 

Methods of Dispute Resolution include:

 

lawsuits (litigation)

arbitration

collaborative law

mediation

conciliation

many types of negotiation

facilitation

 

One could theoretically include violence or even war as part of this spectrum, but dispute resolution practitioners do not usually do so; violence rarely ends disputes effectively, and indeed, often only escalates them. Some individuals, notably Joseph Stalin, have stated that all problems emanate from man, and absent man, no problems ensue. Hence, violence could theoretically end disputes, but alongside it, life.

 

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