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The phenomena arising due to unequal distribution of electric current over the entire cross section of the conductor being used for long distance power transmission is referred as the skin effect in transmission lines. Such a phenomena does not have much role to play in case of a very short line, but with increase in the effective length of the conductors, skin effect increases considerably. So the modifications in line calculation needs to be done accordingly. The distribution of electric current over the entire cross section of the conductor is quite uniform in case of a DC system. But what we are using in the present era of power system engineering is predominantly an alternating electric current system, where the electric current tends to flow with higher density through the surface of the conductors (i.e skin of the conductor), leaving the core deprived of necessary number of electrons.
In fact there even arises a condition when absolutely no electric current flows through the core, and concentrating the entire amount on the surface region, thus resulting in an increase in the effective electrical resistance of the conductor. This particular trend of an AC transmission system to take the surface path for the flow of electric current depriving the core is referred to as the skin effect in transmission lines.
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