one of the basic needs of every family. Provision of better housing facilities
increases the productivity of labour. The housing problem is getting aggravated
due to rapid adoptation of nuclear families. Housing does not mean provision of
house alone but also proper water supply, good sanitation, proper disposal of
sewage etc. The problem of housing can be tackled by the development of low
cost technology in house construction, provision of adequate housing finance
and provision of land sites to landless workers in rural areas.
the NSSO data, 38 per cent of the households lived in with one room while
another 36 per cent lived with two rooms.
Market refers to the infrastructure created to buy and sell the products
produced in rural areas and also to purchase the needed products and farm
inputs produced in urban and other regions. The rural marketing is still
defective as farmers lack bargaining power, long chain of middlemen, lack of
organisation, insufficient storage facilities, poor transport facilities,
absence of grading, inadequate information and poor marketing arrangements.
Rural roads in India constitute 26.50 lakh kms, of which 13.5
percent of the roads are surfaced.
India’s road network is one of the world’s largest. The road
length of India increased from about 4 lakh kms in 1950-51 to 34 lakh kms at
transport is an important constituent of the transport system. Rural roads
constitute the very life line of rural economy.
road network in rural area would bring several benefits including the linking
of remote villages with urban centres, reduction in cost of transportation of
agricultural inputs and promotion of marketing for rural produces. It helps the
farmers to bring their produce to the urban markets and to have access to
distant markets and other services.
Electrification refers to providing electrical power to rural areas. The main
aims of rural electrification are to provide electricity to agricultural
operations and to enhance agricultural productivity, to increase cropped area,
to promote rural industries and to lighting the villages. In order to improve
this facility the supply of electricity is almost free for agricultural purpose
in many states and the electricity tariff charged in rural areas is kept very
low. In India 99.25% of villages were electrified at the end of March 2017. As
on 31.03.2017, 100 percent electrification was achieved in villages of
States/UTs namely, Chandigarh, Delhi, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Punjab,
Rajasthan, Daman & Diu, D & N Haveli, Goa, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Andhra
Pradesh, Kerala, Lakshadweep, Puducherry, Tamil Nadu, Telangana, Andaman &
Nicobar Island, Sikkim and Tripura.
factors hindering the progress of rural electrification in India are:
Funds: The generation and transmission of power involves huge expenditure and the fund allocation is low.
Disputes: As there are inter-state disputes in managing power projects, power distribution is affected.
Terrain: As rural topography is uneven without proper connection, developing new lines are costlier and
Transmission Loss: Transmission loss in power distribution is almost
25 per cent in rural areas.
Theft: Unauthorized use and diversion of power are evil practices adopted by affluent people that hinders the rural